People Who Have Contributed to

Hypnotherapy & Related Fields 


1.  OBITUARY: JACOB H. CONN (1904-1990)
3.  OBITUARY: PETER CASSON (1921-1995)
5.  OBITUARY: MARTIN T. ORNE (1927-2000)
6.  OBITUARY: LOUIS L. DUBIN (1920-2002)
7.  OBITUARY: MILTON KLINE (1923-2004)
9.  OBITUARY: JACK GIBSON (1919-2005)
10. OBITUARY: ROBERT BAKER (1921-2005)
12. OBITUARY: GEOFF GRAHAM (1932-2005)
13. OBITUARY: JOHN DEWERTH (1911-2006)
14. OBITUARY: JAY HALEY (1924-2007)
15. OBITUARY: ALBERT ELLIS (1923-2007)
17. OBITUARY: KAY THOPSON (1930-1998)
19. OBITUARY: HAROLD GOLAN (1920-2003)


23. OBITUARY: VIKKI ASHLY (1933-2009)
25. OBITUARY: LEON CHERTOK (1911-1991)

(1919- 2010)
29. OBITUARY FOR LEWIS WOLBERG (1905-1988) & ARLENE R. WOLBERG (1907-1989)




1. OBITUARY JACOB H. CONN (1904-1990), 86, A PSYCHIATRIST, IS DEAD: NEW YORK TIMES: Dr. Jacob Harry Conn, a psychiatrist and educator for 50 years, died Wednesday at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore. He was 86 years old and lived in Baltimore. Dr. Jacob Harry Conn, a psychiatrist and educator for 50 years, died Wednesday at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore. He was 86 years old and lived in Baltimore. He died of pneumonia, a family spokewoman said.
Dr. Conn was affiliated with Johns Hopkins Hospital and the university's medical school from 1931 to 1981. He also served as a consultant to the Veterans Administration Hospital and the United States District Court in Baltimore. He was in private practice from 1933 until his retirement in 1981. A 1929 graduate of the University of Maryland Medical School, Dr. Conn was also a hypnotist and a child psychiatrist who developed a method of play interview to deal with phobias in children.
He was a past president of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis and of the Maryland Association of Private Practicing Psychiatrists. He is survived by his wife, Beatrice; two daughters, Margaret Himelfarb of Baltimore and Rosalind Cohen of Washington, and four grandchildren.

2.  NICHOLAS SPANOS OBITUARY COMPLIED BY PAUL G. DURBIN: Nicholas “Nick” Spanos died in an airplane crash on June 7, 1994 at the age of 52. Robert Baker wrote in Skeptical Inquirer, “Nick was not only a productive and prolific scholar but also a great teacher and mentor, as well as one of the world's foremost authorities on hypnotic phenomena and social psychology. In a l991 article that examined eminence among social psychologists, Nick was ranked one of the hundred most eminent, and in terms of productivity he was ranked third in the world.
“Although most of his professional career was spent at Carleton University in Ottawa, he was an American by birth and received his B.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Boston University. After getting his doctorate in individual, group, and family psychotherapy, he joined the Medfield State Hospital and Medfield Foundation, working closely with T. X. Barber, before becoming the director of clinical services with Boston Psychological Associates.
“Recognizing the lack of scientific underpinnings for so much of clinical psychology, he joined the Department of Psychology at Carleton in 1975, where he undertook an astonishing research career. Between 1975 and 1994, Nick wrote 183 journal articles, 19 chapters for various medical and psychological textbooks, and published two outstanding textsbooks: one with Barber and J. F. Chaves titled Hypnosis, Imagination & Human Potentialities (Pergamon, 1974), and was the senior editor, with Chaves, of the second, Hypnosis: The Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective (Prometheus, 1989).”
Max Gwynn and others dedicated their book Hypnosis and Imagination of which Nicholas was a contributor and one of the editors of the book. Max wrote: “Nick Spanos was one of the most enigmatic, unconventional individuals that one was likely to meet; however, he was very successful in the conventional confines of academia and scientific investigation. He was a man of many interests; a passionate reader who loved a good informal debate. I learned soon after meeting Nick that you had better be well armed if you would venture to engage him in a debate on practically any issue. He had in-depth knowledge of a multitude of topics: from experimental hypnosis to law and psychology; from claims of UFO abductions to JFK assassination conspiracies; from the Bible to the National Enquirer.
“Nick was never content to let sleeping dogs lie, or to follow along with the status quo either socially or academically. He reveled in shaking foundations not only to see how others would react to his heresy, but because he firmly believed that there were flaws in the structures of these foundations, and he wanted to point them out for the world to see.
“Nick served as an academic advisor to more than 100 graduate and undergraduate students over the years; I count myself lucky to be included among them. He always encouraged his advises to rise up to and triumph over the challenges that we were (seemingly constantly) up against, not only the familiar challenges involving the hoops and hurdles of academia, but also the more general challenges of mastering the art of critical scientific thinking. His helpful advice concerning (v) those academic challenges was at the time invaluable to me; his vital advice on scientific thinking and inquiry will remain with me always.
“Nick was a prolific writer who was able to produce a manuscript of outstanding quality and insight in nary the blink of an eye. I remember more than once, Nick and I would spend a number of days (not to mention late nights) reviewing the analyses of a certain study we had just completed. I would head off, content with the day's work, and "waste away" the next eight hours in such mundane tasks as traveling home, sleeping, and eating. But not so for Nick. I'd arrive back at the lab the next morning, and there he would be, affixed to his desk, greeting me with, "I've got a draft of that paper for JPSP; let's go over it," and he'd hand me an almost letter-perfect handwritten manuscript. Did this man ever sleep? After working with Nick for ten years, I was almost able to read all of his (for lack of a better term) handwriting. His students eventually pushed Nick kicking and screaming into the computer age, and he bought his first computer for word processing, which, of course, accelerated his fantastic rate of output even more .
“Nick was a generous man who gave freely, not only of his material possessions, but of his time, his knowledge, and his insight. To be a complete academic advisor to a single student· is challenge enough for most of us. His ability to give his seemingly undivided attention to as many as thirty students at a time astounds me. We all owe an enormous debt of gratitude to Nick for fostering our fledgling interests, and instilling in us the desire to disengage fiction from fact, myth from reality. He has produced a new generation of psychological researchers; at least a dozen of his apprentices now hold faculty or professional research positions of their own. Mary Shelley's famous fictional doctor was a scientist who devoted his life to creating a man; Dr. Nicholas Spanos was a man who devoted his life to creating scientists.
“I will always remember the loyalty, kindness, and benevolence Nick showed toward me, feelings that I'm confident are shared by all those whose lives Nick touched. The man may be gone, but his friendship, teachings, and spirit will guide me unendingly. For these and so many other reasons, I yearn to express once more, "Nick, thanks for everything." Max Gwynn

3.  OBITUARY: PETER CASSON (1921-1995): DR DYLAN MORGAN: The recent death on 24 October of Peter Casson, one of our members, will bring sadness to many. He was a man who lived life to the full and brought out the same in others around him. Many details of his life and work will be found in the article above. Here we will simply remember the service that he did our profession in the postwar years when it was in its infancy. On the one hand his Hypnosis shows did much to persuade the public of the reality of Hypnosis, and on the other hand his clinical work, undertaken when his income from entertainment was astronomic by the standards of the average Hypnotherapist, helped to underline the serious and helpful aspects of Hypnosis. In addition he did much to persuade a skeptical medical profession of the value of Hypnosis in therapy. These seeds that he planted, starting from the early postwar years, are bearing fruit today and will continue to do so into the next century.
Peter was born in Bridlington, a seaside resort in Yorkshire, on 13 December 1921. In the war he served in the Royal Marines, where he began to develop his skills in Hypnosis. (There were no courses in those days!) He did so well that he was performing at the London Palladium in 1946, before many of us were born! This was also the venue of his acclaimed final performance in 1991, at the age of 70.
The last years of his life were limited by illness, but even then he was as active as possible, and worked to establish the Federation of Ethical Stage Hypnotists in an attempt to ensure that the career to which he devoted his life will continue to maintain the high moral standards that he always adhered to in his stage shows.
I only met Peter once, for an afternoon, about a year ago at the house of a common friend - Peter Davies. We talked of many things but the picture I am left with is a simple one, but may capture some of the essence of the inner man, and balance that of the world-famous performer. He is sitting in an easy chair in a relaxed way. On his lap is a cat which is purring up into his face in ecstasy. Peter is looking down and his hand is stroking the cat with a touch full of awareness, and there is a sense of an unspoken communion and empathy. There was a deep peace in the scene, and the mutual love of man and cat was radiant. Though this has nothing of the glamour of the public man, it may yet tell us more about what we also need to do our job well: an innocent humility, a lively awareness of what we are doing, a deep ability to relate to other beings and, above all, a love for them. Reprinted from The Journal of the National Council for Psychotherapists and Hypnotherapy Register, Winter EXCERPTS PETER CASSON - MASTER HYPNOTIST: DR DYLAN MORGAN: Peter Casson, was a long standing member of the National Council of Psychotherapists, with well over half a century of experience of hypnosis. Peter was born in 1921, and grew up in that period between the wars where international interest in hypnotic phenomena was at a low ebb after the great wave of interest in scientific circles which peaked at around the turn of the century. He first became interested in the subject on hearing about it at a Psychology class run by Mr. Baggott, a lecturer in Psychology at Hull University College, and was soon reading widely and experimenting on his friends. But it was when he joined the Royal Marines as a Telecommunications Specialist and Radar Engineer that his ability won real recognition. Tales of his skill at hypnotising fellow recruits soon spread and his first stage show was at the Sergeants Mess at his Portsmouth Barracks at the special request of the Color Sergeant.
It was during the war that Peter's life-long interest in the therapeutic uses of hypnosis began, working with severely shell-shocked casualties in Egypt at the request of local doctors. Since that time these two sides of Peter's life have continued hand in hand. On the one side he went on after the war to become simply the best stage demonstrator of hypnotic phenomena in the country. There are those who decry stage performances, but it is well to remember that hypnosis is only accepted as a fact and not a fantasy by millions of people as a result of shows by Peter and people like him.
On the therapeutic side, Peter was soon making contact with medical men who had an interest in hypnosis - very few in those days - such as Dr. Sir Alexander Cannon. In 1950 he was invited to give the Annual Lecture at the Hunterian Society, the oldest and most prestigious medical society in the world. He is the only lay man ever to have been so invited.
USA: He has found that the academic establishment in the USA is more enthusiastic about hypnosis that it is in this country, and he has spent time teaching and working on a research project at the Wake Forest University Medical School, North Carolina, at the invitation of James Toole, the professor of Neurology.
Peter was able to demonstrate that hypnosis was able first to eliminate a great deal of the spurious activity which is generally taking place in the brain, and then, with this calm condition as a base line, he was able to activate, by suggestion, a particular region of the brain at will. For example at the suggestion of flashing lights, that system of the brain which deals with "looking" would become active, demonstrating the totally real neurological correlate of the subjective experience. Peter has also used his skills in a therapeutic context in his own clinics in London and Yorkshire throughout the greater part of his professional life, working three weeks in them for every one on the stage.
Over his lifetime Peter has seen hypnosis burgeon from a condition in which there were no more than a handful of people in the country who were using it in any way. Today there are thousands of hypnotherapists and perhaps hundreds of stage and pub performers who are following along the trail blazed by Peter Casson.

4.  OBITUARY: ANDREW SALTER (1914-1996): WIKIPEDIA: Andrew Salter (May 9, 1914-October 6, 1996) is the founder of conditioned reflex therapy, a type of therapy that emphasizes conscious physical action as the way to combat ingrained negative behaviors. In the 1940s, Salter introduced to American psychotherapy the Pavlovian method of contradicting, opposing, and attacking beliefs.
Salter was the first nationally recognized opponent of psychoanalysis. He was a dedicated critic of Freud. His book "The Case Against Psychoanalysis" was so controversial that the New York Times gave it two reviews, one extremely positive and one extremely negative.
Salter proclaimed in this post-war tome, "psychoanalysis has outlived its usefulness." Salter chucked psychoanalysis and replaced it with Pavlovian conditioning under hypnosis. In the conditioned reflex, he has seen the essence of hypnosis. He gave a rebirth to hypnotism by combining it with classical conditioning.
In the original Frank Sinatra film The Manchurian Candidate the Chinese cite Salter's work as their inspiration to brainwash the soldiers. Andrew Salter received his BA from NYU, and was "grand-fathered in" as a practicing (Manhattan at 1000 Park Avenue at East 84th Street) psychologist with only a BA. He was a genius who was fluent in seven languages. He first made his mark clearing out the alcoholic's ward at New York's Bellevue Hospital by curing patients with hypnosis and teaching them self-hypnosis (autosuggestion). Andrew Salter was and remains the most passionate opponent of Classical Freudian Psychoanalysis and believed that A. A. Brill (who was Sigmund Freud's official English translator) had "homogenized" Freud's work and deliberately omitted passages which Brill considered to be too radical, conflicting or bizarre. Salter spent three years studying everything Freud and his contemporaries had written, including correspondence with Carl Jung and Anna Freud, mostly in the original German before writing his "autopsy" of Psychoanalysis, "The Case Against Psychoanalysis" which today remains the best work ever written critiquing Freud's theories. Today's academic texts "soft pedal" many of Freud's theories, making Psychoanalysis more "palatable" due largely in part to Salter's works and those who came after him.
Salter also brought attention to the fact that Pavlovian Psychology was a lot more than simple Classical Conditioning, citing the work done in Pavlov's Russian laboratory for over a quarter of a century. Salter is considered by many to be the "father of behavior therapy". Salter is certainly one of the first psychotherapists who adapted and applied learning theories to clinical practice. Salter believed in releasing personal "inhibitions" by practicing techniques leading to what he called "excitation" which results in "disinhibition", a state which he described as akin to being slightly drunk. Chapter 8 in "Conditioned Reflex Therapy" contains all of the "exercises" (like the deliberate use of the word "I") leading to a state of excitation. Today, excitation, a term from the Pavlovian lexicon, might be referred to as a combination of "assertion" and "disinhibition". Salter, as did other "behaviorists" of the time, also had his patients learn & practice Edmund Jacobson's technique of "progressive relaxation".
Salter's hypnotic and relaxation techniques were first explained in his book, "What Is Hypnosis?" which was proclaimed a work of genius by Theodore X. Barber, a physiologist who researched hypnotic induction (Barber and Calverley) during the post World War II era. Salter's writing is brillant and the style excellent. Informative, entertaining and well worth reading. Salter was a serious writer with a great sense of humor and irony. Salter's techniques were revived among college students during the early and mid 1970's at Bernard M. Baruch College (City University of New York) by student leader and newpaper ("The Ticker") editor Richard Rodriguez, who was
introduced to Salter's work by ex-Marine and fellow student, Brian Guerre. After corresponding with Salter, Rodriguez held training sessions on campus in the office of his "Health Sciences Society" organization which he founded in 1972. Over a two year period, Rodriguez trained over two hundred students in progressive relaxation and autosuggestion, which improved the students' ability to study and do better on exams. Rodriguez's motto was "relax to your purpose". Although we now know much more about the workings and chemistry of the brain then was known 65 years ago, Salter's techniques remain extremely effective and life altering. His works remained in print for over 25 years and have been translated in over a dozen languages and his books have also won numerous awards. The Salter family has recently promoted the re-publication of "Conditioned Reflex Therapy" which was Salter's most influential work.

5.  OBITUARY: MARTIN T. ORNE (1927-2000): EXCERPT IN MEMORIAM JOHN F. KIHLSTROM & FRED FRANKEL:  Martin T. Orne, one of the leading figures in the modern era of hypnosis. Orne made classic contributions to our knowledge of the nature of hypnosis and its applications to psychotherapy and behavioral medicine. From his distinguished academic bases, first at Harvard and later at Pennsylvania, he helped bring new status to the scientific study of hypnosis and vigorously promoted its use in medicine and psychotherapy. Martin Orne is survived by his wife, Emily Carota Orne, a research psychologist who was his longtime collaborator at the Unit for Experimental Psychiatry; their son, Franklin; and daughter, Tracy.
Martin Orne was born in Vienna on October 16, 1927, into a family of physicians; his father, Frank Orne, was a surgeon, and his mother, Martha Brunner-Orne, was a psychiatrist who made distinguished contributions to the understanding and treatment of alcoholism. In 1938, escaping the Nazi onslaught, the family emigrated to the United States, settling first in New York City. Orne received his bachelor's degree from Harvard in 1948. Orne received his medical degree from Tufts in 1955 and his doctorate in psychology from Harvard in 1958.
Throughout his career, Orne was primarily concerned with the objective, scientific study of private, subjective experience, and hypnosis was the perfect vehicle for pursuing this topic. Many of Orne's papers on hypnosis were critical of popular, long-standing claims about hypnosis. His bachelor's thesis, which remains a classic, compared subjects' productions during hypnotic age-regression to artifacts from their actual childhood. Together with later work in Orne's laboratory by Donald O'Connell, this line of research showed convincingly that age-regression did not necessarily revive childhood memories or replace adult modes of psychological functioning with those of childhood. Another classic experiment, conducted with Frederick J. Evans, showed that antisocial and self-injurious behavior, apparently produced by hypnotic suggestion, was actually a response to the demand characteristics of the experimental setting in which the suggestions were given and had nothing to do with hypnosis per se. Similarly, Orne and Evans showed that hypnosis did not enable subjects to transcend normal limits of human performance. There were positive contributions, too. Orne's doctoral dissertation introduced the concepts of both trance logic and the real-simulator design. This paper shaped much of the agenda of hypnosis for research for more than two decades.
Orne was trained as both a researcher and a clinician, and he never acquiesced to the "split" between science and practice. From the beginning to the end of his career, he promoted the appropriate and effective use of hypnosis in the clinic, but he insisted that clinical practice should be grounded in empirical research. He was a staunch advocate of the use of hypnosis to control pain and cautiously optimistic about the psychosomatic effects of hypnotic suggestion. Most recently, he became involved in a project examining the effectiveness of self-hypnosis and meditation for the management of stress and pain in sickle cell anemia.
In his twin roles as clinician and researcher, Orne was a central figure in the debate, still current, over the use of hypnosis to recover forgotten memories. Orne's view that hypnosis is unduly suggestive and could lead witnesses to confabulate -- or, at least, to have undue confidence in their memories -- was favorably cited in more than 30 state supreme court decisions, as well as by the United States Supreme Court. He led a committee of the American Medical Association, which established standards for the forensic use of hypnosis. The "Orne guidelines" were essentially adopted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other law-enforcement agencies. When clinical practitioners began to use hypnosis in psychotherapy with victims of trauma, Orne warned against the view that hypnosis was a "royal road" to repressed or dissociated memories and cautioned that "recovered memories" of trauma, no less than other clinically or forensically important memories, required independent corroboration. To the end of his life, he was actively involved in the debate over the validity of recovered memory therapy.
Orne serve as an expert witness in a number of cases involving issues broadly related to hypnosis. Most famous, perhaps, was his evaluation of Kenneth Bianchi, the accused "Hillside Strangler," which was documented in "The Mind of a Murderer," an award-winning BBC documentary. Based on his experience with simulating subjects, Orne was able to undermine Bianchi's "multiple personality" defense. In the 1980s, as the dissociative disorders regained their place in the diagnostic nomenclature, and case reports of multiple personality rose to epidemic proportions, Orne took a skeptical stance.
Reminding his colleagues of the 19th-century debate between the Salpetriere and the Nancy schools of hypnosis, he underscored the role of suggestion in producing the phenomena of hysteria and dissociation and warned inexperienced practitioners to beware of iatrogenesis. Orne's contributions to clinical practice went far beyond the use of hypnosis.

6.  OBITUARY LOUIS L. DUBIN, M.A., D.D.S., PH.D. JULY 24, 1920 - JULY 29, 2002:
My mentor, friend, and colleague Louis Dubin, was born on July 24, 1920 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and died on July 29, 2002. Lou held doctorates in both dentistry and psychology. Originally, he set out to become a bacteriologist. After finishing his master's degree in the field, he went to dental school. In 1951 he became intrigued with and began his never-ending studies in clinical hypnosis. Always a perpetual student, he then completed his Ph.D. in psychology. While continuing his studies, he provided his knowledge and expertise to others through teaching. Lou shared his knowledge and intellect as a Clinical Professor at Temple University; as an Associate Clinical Professor at Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Psychiatry; and as an Attending in the Albert Einstein Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry. Lou was also board certified in forensics. He made himself, his knowledge, and his skills available to assure that justice was done. His legal pursuits were a perfect fit for him because a good expert witness sees the job as one in which it is important to be a teacher. Lou always turned the courtroom into a lecture hall in which he usually had over fifteen students: the judge, attorneys on both sides, plaintiffs and defendants, and twelve jurors. He called on his knowledge and experience to supply relevant case material as a foundation for a fair and just case resolution. While on the stand, he also maintained his composure and professionalism under adverse questioning and provided relevant substantiation for his testimony.
Albert Einstein Medical Center created a yearly lecture series in Medicine, Hypnosis, and the Law in Lou's honor, the first of all their lecture series that was to honor a living professional. Lou passed on less than a month before the first lecture could take place, and the series will now be held in his memory. Lou was one of the great teachers in the field of hypnosis and was actively involved in every aspect of professional hypnosis. He was Past President of the Greater Philadelphia Society of Hypnosis and our own ASCH. He was a Diplomate of the American Board of Dental Hypnosis and a Fellow of both ASCH and SCEH. In addition to sharing through his lectures, he authored and co-authored numerous articles on clinical hypnosis. Most of them were penned in the study off the living room at home. Lou was forever writing and re-writing, and crumpled papers littering the floor was a commonplace scene. In addition to teaching others, he was passionate about directly helping people He saw patients and used hypnosis at his dental office (sometimes working past midnight), at the hospitals he was affiliated with, at prisons working with psychiatrists, and in his study at home. Retirement never truly materialized for Lou. He was already doing what he loved throughout his multidisciplined career. There was always too much left for him to share, for him to be idle. Lou was a true embodiment of a "Renaissance Man". Lou and his wife, Bette, were married for 53 years and had two children. John is an Emergency room M.D. and Jan blessed them with their eight grandchildren.
Lou Dubin was a colleague and friend to us for many years, but how does one find the syntax to do justice to such an individual? Language would be too restrictive (even were I a poet laureate) when it concerned expressing my admiration and respect for Lou. Despite Lou's frenetic pace, he always had time to help others. He made the time. It was as important to him to pass on his acquired knowledge and skills, as it was to quench his constant educational thirst. He was the consummate student and educator, and a tremendous individual. I can describe his accomplishments, but I can't adequately express the depth of the professional and personal gratitude that we all hold for him in our heads and hearts. On a personal note, it was to have been my privilege to co-teach another workshop with Lou. He had gone to great lengths to rearrange his busy schedule for that. Unfortunately it just wasn't destined to be. He was one of my mentors and idols. I will miss him greatly; we all will. In his honor, we can emulate his generosity and his commitment by sharing our knowledge with others, as he shared his. Passing on Lou's principles and philosophies can be our greatest tribute to his memory and legacy.

7.  OBITUARY: DR. MILTON KLINE (1923-2004):  KLINE--Dr. Milton V. Psychologist and pioneer in hypnotherapy died on January 7 at Northern Westchester Hospital Center, Mount Kisco, NY. He was co-founder of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. Director and founder of the Institute for Research in Hypnosis and Psychotherapy and the Morton Prince Mental Health Center. Editor Emeritus of the International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis; author of ''Freud and Hypnosis,'' ''Forensic Hypnosis,'' ''The Search for Bridey Murphy,'' ''Clinical Correlations of Experimental Hypnosis,'' ''Psychodynamics and Hypnosis,'' ''Hypnodynamic Psychology,'' ''Short Term Dynamic Hypnotherapy and Hypnoanalysis''; editor ''Obesity: Etiology, Treatment and Management.'' His books have been translated into several languages. He was a contributor of scientific papers to numerous professional journals. Dr. Kline had private practices in NYC and Pound Ridge, New York. He is survived by his wife Dorothy, his daughter Jill and granddaughter Lucy.

8.  OBITUARY: THEODORE R. SARBIN (1911-2005): V. M. HEVERN:  Theodore Roy (Ted) Sarbin was professor emeritus of psychology and criminology at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He was born in 1911 and raised in Cleveland, OH. Completing high school at night, Sarbin held several odd jobs in the early Depression years and did not begin undergraduate studies at the Ohio State University until 1934 when he was 23. He graduated cum laude two years later and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He received a master's degree in psychology from Case Western Reserve University in 1937 and completed his doctoral work at Ohio State in 1941. Meanwhile he held various positions at the University of Minnesota (1938-1941) doing student personnel and clinical psychological work. At a talk given by Prof. Norman Cameron (University of Wisconsin) for the student honor society, Psi Chi, at Minnesota in either 1939 or 1940, Sarbin first encountered the notion of role-taking which was to influence much of his later work. Indeed, Sarbin's first published reflections upon role taking came soon thereafter as he explored how roles are closely tied to notions of the self (see Sarbin, 1943). From 1941 to 1943 he completed a Social Science Research Council post-doctoral fellowship at the University of Chicago where he was sponsored by the eminent professor of urban sociology, Ernest Burgess. The work and thoughts of University of Chicago social theorist, George Herbert Mead, who had died in 1931, acted as a continuing influence on Sarbin as it had on others. During this fellowship, he attended seminars at the Chicago Institute of Psychoanalysis and gained wider clinical experience as a visiting faculty member at several psychiatric hospitals in the Chicago area. In this period, he made a one-week visit to Beacon Hill Sanitarium, the private hospital in New York State where Jacob L. Moreno, the founding theorist of psychodrama, employed his methods and trained other therapists.
After completing a post-doctoral fellowship at U Chicago, Sarbin worked briefly at the Lincoln State School for the Mentally Retarded in a clinical supervisory role. He established a private clinical practice in Chicago and taught some classes at Northwestern University's night school. However, Sarbin and his family relocated to Southern California (Los Angeles) in late 1944 or early 1945. In addition to setting up a clinical practice in Los Angeles, Sarbin also began teaching part-time at Long Beach City College. In 1947 he accepted a part-time clinical appointment at the Veterans Administration clinic in Los Angeles until moving to the Bay area in 1949.
Sarbin joined the psychology faculty at the University of California at Berkeley in 1949 as a lecturer in clinical psychology. He remained at Berkeley for two decades. Subsequently, he moved to the newly opened campus of the University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC) in the 1969 where he was Professor of Psychology and Criminology. Though he attained "emeritus" status at UCSC in 1976, he continued teaching on a part-time basis for the next twelve years.
The phenomenon of hypnotism--its nature and clinical use--was a very early interest of Sarbin's and remained one for his entire career. His first published paper (Friedlander & Sarbin, 1938) examined the depth of the hypnotic state. Influenced by his work on clinical hypnotism and its relation to the assumption of the hypnotic role, Sarbin fashioned an expanded social psychological theory of role taking which appeared in his pivotal 1954 article in the Handbook of Socal Psychology (Lindzey, 1954).
Sarbin's interest in narrative stemmed from the work he had done previously on role theory and the ways in which humans adapt dramaturgical stances in their everyday lives. Very early in his teaching career at Berkeley, Sarbin had used narrative case studies extensively as he introduced his students to abnormal and clinical psychology. In his first year at Santa Cruz, he became personally acquainted with retired Berkeley philosopher, Stephen C. Pepper (1891-1972), who had published the influential volume, World Hypotheses, in 1942. In this work, Pepper argued that humans deploy fundamental metaphorical strategies ("root metaphors") by which to interpret their experiences of the world. He isolated four such root metaphors which he labeled "formism, mechanism, contextualism, and organicism". Sarbin would later note: "Eventually I tied contextualism and the narrative together and saw that the root metaphor for contextualism is the historic act in all its complexity. My chapter in the book, Narrative Psychology, showed that the narrative could equally represent contextualism. It has all of the same features as the historical act. The only difference is that narratives are told as well as lived while historical acts, of course, are narrated by historians" (Hevern, 1999). His famous essay on narrative as a root metaphor (Sarbin, 1986) grew out of discussions initiated at the Center for the Humanities at Wesleyan University in 1979. There he was exposed to or entered into discussions with figures like Louis Mink, Steven Crites, and others for whom narrative was a central topic of concern. Sarbin offered his thoughts about narrative as a root metaphor for psychology publicly at a symposium at the 1983 APA Convention in Anaheim, CA in a session chaired by Brian Sutton-Smith.
After retiring from UC Santa Cruz faculty, Sarbin continued to publish extensively as well as to teach, primarily at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, CA. In 1988 he was the author of a controversial study--the "PERSEREC" Report with Kenneth Karols (Sarbin & Karols, 1988), which challenged the Department of Defense's policy of excluding homosexuals from the military. He continued to work at the Defense Personnel Security Research Center (PERSEREC) until shortly before his death on August 31, 2005
Sarbin was legendary for his dedication to his many former graduate students and colleagues with whom he continued to write and carry out research and other projects at a steady pace until his death. Of course, few scholars -- psychologists or otherwise -- have been publishing continuously to such acclaim across seven decades.
In the summer of 2005, Sarbin was diagnosed with advanced pancreatic cancer. Despite this, he came to the American Psychological Association meeting in Washington, DC during August 18-21 in order to have a chance to meet with his professional colleagues and friends for a last time. He did so at several venues including a dinner at which he introduced about 65 other guests individually, presented the first Theodore R. Sarbin Award for Narrative Psychology to Jefferson Singer (Connecticut College) on behalf of Division 24 (Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology) of APA, and made two final awards of his "Role Theorist of the Year" to Hank Stam (U Calgary) and Robert Elliott (U Toledo). On the following day, he sat through a two-hour symposium on "Narrative Psychology: State of the Art" with a group of some of the most important psychologists in the field (Dan McAdams, Michael Bamberg, Ruthellen Josselson, Mary and Ken Gergen) with about 300-350 attending and offered a 4 1/2 minute discussion at the end, only shortened because his voice gave out. At his death, Ted was 94 years old, had been an active and productive psychologist from 1937 until 10 days previous, and left behind an immense number of people who loved him dearly for his professional contributions, utter decency, kind care, and warm friendship.
He received the Henry A. Murray Award in 1994 from the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. In 1999 he was the recipient of the Award for Distinguished Theoretical and Philosophical Contributions to Psychology by Division 24 of the American Psychological Association. In August 2005, that same division instituted an annual award in his name.

9.  OBITUARY: JACK GIBSON (1919-2005): Jack Stanley Gibson Surgeon who advocated the use of hypnosis as an alternative to anaesthetics Jack Stanley Gibson, surgeon and hypnotherapist Naas, County Kildare, Ireland (b 1909; q 1933; FRCSI, DTM&H). Jack Gibson died peacefully in the Naas General Hospital on Saturday 2 April 2005 aged 95.
He will be remembered by his colleagues, patients, and employees as a doctor with a welcoming smile who treated everyone with respect and courtesy. He was a short, balding dynamo of a man, once a James Mason lookalike, latterly closer to Nelson Mandela with Ghandi’s beautiful smile. His impact on people’s lives was phenomenal.
He was a walking contradiction who was the bane of many a hospital hierarchy or high court judge: he was alternative yet conventional, a rebellious yet establishment figure, informal yet intense, self mocking yet proud. He was obstinate and infuriating, yet nevertheless colorful and charismatic. Jack was always improvisational and inventive as a surgeon, creating new stitching techniques and instruments, pioneering hypnosis even before the second world war and castigating the excessive use of antibiotics. He believed in the power of the mind above all else and inspired several generations of doctors to the underrated practice of hypnosis, both in surgery and in treating psychosomatic disorders or disease. His books are peppered with inspirational and often idiosyncratic tales and case histories that leave the reader gasping for more.
After becoming a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland in 1934, he then did locums in Aden and Malawi (1935-7), and at the McCord Zulu Hospital (1938). He became dean of the Medical Aids School (later known as the Durban Medical School) in 1939. He worked for the Emergency Medical Service in Newcastle, Liverpool, and Weymouth (1939-45) treating soldiers wounded at Dunkirk and during D Day. Jack returned to South Africa working at the Brakepan Hospital and as a GP in 1946-9, and then came back north to Guernsey as the Queen Elizabeth Hospital surgeon, 1950-8. He returned to Africa as the Haile Selassie Hospital surgeon, Ethiopia, 1959, and finally returned to his native Ireland as the Dr Steeven’s Hospital RSO, in Dublin, 1959.
He was the youngest ever fellow of the RCSI (October 1935). He set up the first blood transfusion service for black Africans around 1938. He pioneered hypnosis in surgery for over 40 years, performing more than 4000 procedures without anaesthesia.
He developed a unique bond of friendship over 20 years as a Protestant working in a Catholic hospital. He ran the busiest accident and emergency departments in Ireland for more than a decade, with one of the lowest mortality rates in the country. He cured himself of basal cell cancer and chronic varicose veins through self hypnosis.
He produced a series of gramophone records/cassette tapes and CDs from 1965 onwards, dealing with psychosomatic disorders and based on self hypnosis (How to Stop Smoking was top of the pops and later was the best selling LP in Ireland in 1971).
He had a long and illustrious career as a legal medical expert, sparring on many occasions with Arthur Chance, who had once given him a job in 1959 at Steeven’s Hospital. He appeared several times on The Late Late Show, Nationwide and various other television programmes.
He produced a video entitled The Power of the Subconscious showing himself performing eye surgery under hypnosis in the 1960s.
He published three books: The Life and Times of an Irish Hypnotherapist (1989), Relax and Live (1992), and Memoirs of an Irish Surgeon—An Enchanted Life (1999). After 70 years’ practice, he was still working seven days a week until the Wednesday before his death at the age of 95. He was in the process of drafting three more books, one about case histories in hypnotherapy, an academic/medical book on hypnotherapy, and one on James Esdaile, a Scottish surgeon who practiced hypnosis for surgical purposes in India in the 1800s.
He visited India aged 90 and even got on a camel and rode around the Taj Mahal. Despite a severe stroke in 1989, the replacement of both rheumatoid knees, an operation for carpal tunnel syndrome, and a life threatening and murderous attack in 2004, he still had plans to visit the Himalayas and China. He is survived by Andrew Gibb, his son-in-law; Jason Gibb, his grandson; Tamsin, his granddaughter; and two great grandchildren. [S C Kohli, Andrew Gibb]

A few of Dr. Baker's many articles
An alien taxonomy
Can we tell if someone is staring at us?
If look could kill and words could heal...
Scientific remote viewing
and books
Hidden Memories
They Call It Hypnosis
Mind Games
Stress Analysis of a Strapless Evening Gown
Missing Pieces: How to Investigate Ghosts, UFO's, Psychics & Other
Mysteries (with Joe Nickell)
"All areas of human thought were of interest to him, I think. He was just
very, very wise."
By Jennifer Hewlett/Lexington Herald-Leader, Aug. 11, 2005: Robert Baker, considered an expert in the workings of the human mind and one of America's pre-eminent ghost busters, died Monday at his home in Lexington. He was 84. Mr. Baker, former chairman of the University of Kentucky psychology department, spent a good deal of his time using science and reason to explain away things that seemed to defy natural laws for others. He was known for saying "there are no haunted places, only haunted people."
Astronomer Carl Sagan sought out Mr. Baker when he was working on an article about alien abductions. Joe Nickell, a nationally known fellow ghost buster with whom Mr. Baker once investigated alleged haunted houses, often relied on Mr. Baker's expertise. "He was just really very, very wise and understanding of how the mind worked -- how easily we could not only be fooled ... but how we fool ourselves," said Nickell, a former UK English professor and now a senior research fellow for the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal in Buffalo, N.Y. "One of his cases involved a woman who was ... seeing a little ghost girl," Nickell said. "Bob went and very carefully interviewed her and her husband and neighbors, and found that only the woman would see the ghost. He found that she wanted very much to have a child of her own and could not. Bob steered the conversation away from the ghost and counseled the couple to adopt a child. When they did, the little ghost girl went away forever."
Mr. Baker also was involved in a number of more run-of-the-mill cases, such as houses that had seemingly unexplainable noises and moving objects in them. In addition, Nickell said, "No one knew more about alien abductions than Robert Baker." Nickell said that he and Mr. Baker shared a common view that paranormal claims should not simply be accepted or dismissed, but carefully investigated, with a view toward solving any mystery.
Mr. Baker, he said, was sensitive to people's feelings and gentle in his dealings with them. "I would say he had an international reputation, particularly among rationalists, people who looked to science and reason to explain things, as opposed to superstition," Nickell said. "Whenever I had a question about some case where I was sort of guessing at the psychology of something, I would pick up the phone and call him," he said. "He was very, very important to the work of our organization and magazine." The magazine is called Skeptical Inquirer.
Mr. Baker was an organizer and had served as president of the Kentucky Association of Science Educators and Skeptics and was a fellow of the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal. He also was a past president of the Kentucky Psychological Association and a fellow of the American Psychological Association.
Mr. Baker retired from UK in 1989 after teaching humanistic psychology for about 20 years. Humanistic psychology deals with issues of human existence, such as love, aging, personal fulfillment, and the meaning of life and death.
During his career he also spent many years designing training methods for the U.S. Army, and he worked as a psychologist for the state department of corrections.
He also had been a staff scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a professor at Chico State College and Indiana University S.E. He said he started investigating claims of the paranormal to help ease the panic some people feel about ghosts and to protect the public from those who claimed supernatural ability for financial gain. He taught workshops on investigating paranormal claims.
He wrote several books, including Hidden Memories, They Call It Hypnosis, Mind Games, Psychology in the Wry and Stress Analysis of a Strapless Evening Gown. He co-wrote a book called Private Eyes and contributed articles to professional magazines. He and Nickell wrote a book called Missing Pieces: How to Investigate Ghosts, UFO's, Psychics & Other Mysteries. "All areas of human thought were of interest to him, I think. He was just very, very wise," Nickell said. Mr. Baker was a native of Blackford in Crittenden County and a World War II Army veteran who held bachelor's and master's degrees from UK and a Ph.D. from Stanford University.
He is survived by his wife, Rose P. "Dolly" Baker; three sons, Michael Baker, Robert Baker and John Baker, all of Lexington; three daughters, Kathryn Franklin of Florence, Carol McGinnis of Bardstown, and Belinda Dorsch of Lebanon, Ohio; and seven grandchildren.

THEODORE BARBER DIES AT 78; WAS MAJOR CRITIC OF HYPNOSIS: JEREMY PEARCE: NEW YORK TIMES: SEPT 2005: Theodore X. Barber, a psychologist who became a leading critic of hypnosis after his scientific studies concluded that the power of suggestion often worked nearly as well, died on Sept. 10 at a hospital in Framingham, Mass. He was 78 and lived in Ashland, Mass. The cause was a ruptured aorta, his family said.
Dr. Barber developed what became career long studies of hypnosis in the 1960's, while conducting research at the Medfield Foundation, a private psychiatric research center in Massachusetts. Earlier, in a series of experiments performed door to door, he and other researchers found that they could induce sleepiness by suggestion alone, without the swinging watches or formal protocols used by hypnotists. Power of suggestion worked effectively on about 20 percent of the people tested, although another 25 percent had no reaction. (Durbin: There a many ways to hypnotize people besides the swing watch and waking hypnosis consist of suggestion as described above.)
The results stimulated Dr. Barber's interest in the hypnotic state, and he examined people who could be easily or deeply hypnotized. In the 1970's, he helped identify a small minority - 2 percent to 4 percent of the population - who were especially responsive, and he then studied the group. With other researchers, he found that the people most susceptible to hypnosis included those who were "gifted fantasizers" or "amnesia prone."
John F. Chaves, a psychologist at the State University of New York, Stony Brook, said Dr. Barber's studies "took a lot of the magic away from hypnotism," but explained a great deal about phenomena traditionally associated with hypnosis, including memory and concentration.
In 1969, Dr. Barber published a book, "Hypnosis: A Scientific Approach," that Dr. Chaves said "placed hypnotic phenomena in the mainstream of social psychology." Also in the 1960's, Dr. Barber's research introduced the Barber Suggestibility Scale, a method of evaluating patients and measuring their responsiveness to a range of suggestions. The scale is still in use. Theodore Xenophon Barber was born in Martins Ferry, Ohio. He earned his doctorate in social psychology from American University in 1956, and after a period of research at Harvard, he joined the Medfield Foundation in 1961. He became director of research there in 1973, and served as chief psychologist at Cushing Hospital in Framingham from 1978 to 1986. He was also a former chief psychologist at Medfield State Hospital.
Dr. Barber is survived by a son, X. Theodore Barber of Manhattan; two daughters, Elaine Barber of Silver Spring, Md., and Rania Richardson of Manhattan; a brother, John Barber of San Antonio; and two sisters, Angela Fardy of Westwood, N.J., and Mary Brillis of Hastings-on-Hudson, N.Y.

12. OBITUARY: GEOFF GRAHAM (1932–2005): MAXIMILIAN SCHMIERER: With Geoff Graham’s passing we have lost a good friend who has been central to BSMDH for many years and who’s memory is imprinted powerfully upon the consciousness of all who knew him..He was a "Geordie" giant in all senses of the world. Massive of girth, titanic in intellect and innovation, awesome in personality and insightfulness, and above all a man with infinite gifts for the honest enjoyment of life and compassion for his fellow men. He welcomed newcomers to the BSMDH warmly like old friends, was a constant source of encouragement and knowledge, and was very largely personally responsible for the growth of BSMDH in the 70s and 80s.
Geoff was born in Newcastle in 1932 .He studied dentistry at Newcastle University and after qualifying was called up for his National Service. After that he established a practice in Newcastle. and quickly became involved with the BSMDH. Over the years Geoff held a multitude of roles within the Society, including those of Chairman and President, and his input at both organizational and clinical levels is inestimable. For all who saw Geoff in action his flair and skill in demonstrating clinical hypnosis was quite breathtaking.
He was a wonderful teacher and it was impossible not to be enthralled by his enthusiasm and passion for hypnosis. Through the respect and love in which he was held throughout the world of hypnosis, we were fortunate to hear great master of the hypnosis world, Martin Orne, David Cheek and Calvert Stein amongst their number, who were also his friends. This made the courses he organized in the Northeast for those of us fortunate enough to attend memorable.
He was certainly an eclectic therapist. A vital feature of his belief being that before adapting any model of therapy he would study it to the ultimate degree. If he accepted it he would embrace it wholeheartedly, always aware that much of the therapist’s skill was in matching the specific approach, whatever that was, with the needs of the individual patient. Many of us will recall his involvement with primal therapy and the dramatic (and to me very scary!) demonstrations of re-birthing that we were witness to on his Newcastle workshops.
His enthusiasm could lead to controversy, particularly amongst some of the more conservative of those involved in the BSMDH hierarchy. In this context he was way ahead of the game when, at a time when the video was little known or used, Geoff put together what must have been one of the first commercial videos for public consumption on smoking cessation. This was viewed critically by some. In the furore which developed he more than held his own, but afterwards, typically of the man, friendships continued and there was a total lack of animosity or loss of respect on either side.
More years ago than I care to remember, every Friday I would stop dentistry at midday and drive 160 miles to Newcastle to spend invaluable hours in Geoff’s consulting room, watching the great man at work, attempting to deconstruct his magic, and learning more by the minute in his presence with his patients..
I remember clearly one session to which I was privy. Geoff was vigorously re-birthing a tough, twenty stone Glaswegian, and this entailed the guy being forced bodily between Geoff’s somewhat bowed legs whilst swearing lustily and imaginatively as I cowered in the corner of the room. Afterwards, aghast, I said to Geoff “I couldn’t work like that” and he replied “Of course you couldn’t. It’s not your style. You have to learn everything and then it’s up to you what you do and how you do it.”
Strange that even now when I’m taking someone through progressive relaxation and use the word “eff-ort-less-ly” it seems to come out in a Geordie lilt. Strange how certain exceptional people continue to live on within your brain. Geoff leaves a wife, Trish, and daughters Suzy and Heather. To all of them and to the rest of his family we send our sincere good wishes and heartfelt sympathy on their sad loss.

13. OBITUARY: JOHN DEWERTH (1911-2006) USED HYPNOSIS IN MEDICAL PRACTICE; HIS TECHNIQUE: JESSE GARZA: MILWAUKEE JOURNAL: JUNE 2006: Once, at a Menomonee Falls tavern, one of John DeWerth's sons raised a question to which half of the tavern's patrons raised their hands."He said, How many people in here have been delivered by Dr. ohn DeWerth?' " DeWerth's daughter Patricia DeWerth Corbett recalled Tuesday. "He delivered at lot of babies," she said of her father, who practiced medicine in Menomonee Falls for 30 years.
Services will be this week for DeWerth, who died Sunday after a brief illness at age 94.He started as a general practitioner but went on to practice internal medicine and surgery. He also specialized in the treatment of diabetes and incorporated hypnosis in the treatment of childbirth, weight loss and smoking cessation.
John Homer DeWerth was born on Aug. 14, 1911, in Milwaukee to Walter and Frances DeWerth, proprietors of DeWerth's Park, a beer garden on the north side. In 1937, he earned his medical degree from Marquette University, where he met his future wife, Bernice "Bunny" Hayett.
He became medical director for A.O. Smith before joining the staff at St. Joseph's Hospital.
He studied internal medicine and surgery at the University of Pennsylvania and the Lahey Clinic near Boston, where he gained his diabetes specialty. He returned to Milwaukee as medical director for the Milwaukee Induction Board during World War II before establishing a family medical practice in Menomonee Falls. He established the Mary Hill Clinic in Menomonee Falls, where he began to integrate hypnosis into his practice, his daughter said.
Word of his technique spread nationally, DeWerth Corbett said. "He had people from all over the country coming to see him to lose weight or stop smoking," she said. "He would use (hypnosis) when he delivered babies so women wouldn't have to have anesthesia."
When her brother John had trouble studying while attending Notre Dame University, her father hypnotized him so he could concentrate better, DeWerth Corbett said.
That worked out fine until he learned to hypnotize himself, she said. "A call came from someone saying (her brother) couldn't come out of his trance," she remembered. "Somehow my dad had to resolve it over the phone." Her father closed his Menomonee Falls practice in the early 1970s and returned to St. Joseph's, where he served as director of emergency medicine before retiring in 1977.
During his retirement, he enjoyed hunting, fishing and spending time on his property in Adams County. He later moved with his wife to Alexian Village in Milwaukee, his daughter said.
"Once, he said to one of his nurses, I used to be a brilliant man,' " DeWerth Corbett recalled. "And she looked at him and said, You still are.' " DeWerth, who was preceded in death by his wife and son William, is also survived by sons John, Robert, Thomas and another daughter, Mary.
Visitation will be from 4 to 7 p.m. today at Church and Chapel Funeral Home, 15250 W. National Ave., New Berlin. The funeral will be at 10:30 a.m. Saturday at St. Boniface Catholic Church, W204- N11940 Goldendale Road, Germantown. Copyright 2006, Journal Sentinel Inc. All rights reserved. (Note: This notice does not apply to those news items already copyrighted and received through wire services or other media.) [Copyright 2006 Journal Sentinel Inc.]

14. OBITUARY: JAY HALEY (1924-2007): JAY HALEY DIES FEB 13 2007 AT AGE 83: Haley dies Feb 13 2007 at age 83. He was a psychologist recognized as a pioneer of family therapy and a co-founder of the Family Therapy Institute in Chevy Chase, died Feb. 13 of cardiopulmonary failure at his home in La Jolla, Calif. At the time of his death, he was a research professor at the California School of Professional Psychology at Alliant International University. Mr. Haley was a proponent of brief therapies that focused on solving concrete and immediate problems rather than delving into the past for root causes. Developed by Mr. Haley's mentor, Milton H. Erickson, the approach also shifted the focus from the client in isolation to the social context, particularly the family unit. "Working with more than one family member in therapy was a radical idea at the time," said Scott Wooley, a colleague at Alliant International University. Mr. Haley once wrote that "my most significant contribution is breaking therapy down to a practice of specific skills -- of simple ideas, skills and techniques. This is quite different from the non-directive ideology the field had when I first got into it." His direct approach occasionally brought him into conflict with colleagues who relied on more traditional approaches, as the New York Times noted in a 1985 article about a conference in Phoenix attended by a number of psychotherapy luminaries.
In a heated confrontation with a New York psychoanalyst who specialized in long-term treatment of troubled adolescents, Mr. Haley said: "When you say an adolescent had such-and-such a development history, that's just your dream, based on fantasy or hearsay. You'll never really know what happened in his past."
Mr. Haley insisted that it was "the therapist's job to change the patient, not to help him understand himself." At the Phoenix conference, as the Times reported, he came under attack from two renowned therapists, Carl Rogers, founder of client-centered therapy, and Rollo May, a best-selling author and existential therapist. They said that Mr. Haley's approach was manipulative and dangerous. "Those who do long-term therapy say it is shallow just to focus on change, but at least the patients get over their symptoms," Mr. Haley said. Michael D. Yapko, a California therapist who considered Mr. Haley a friend and mentor, recalled that Mr. Haley also could be a sharp-tongued critic of those who agreed with his approach and that he had little patience for well-established practices pertaining to session lengths, session frequencies and fees. Yapko quoted a line Mr. Haley wrote in 1988: "Of the many ways to set a fee, the most obvious is to charge for the cure of a symptom rather than the number of hours sitting in the presence of a client."
Jay Douglas Haley was born in Midwest, Wyo., and grew up in California. After serving in the Army, he graduated from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1948. He also received an undergraduate degree in library science from the University of California at Berkeley in 1951 and a master's degree in communication from Stanford University in 1953. In 1974, he cofounded the Family Therapy Institute, based in Chevy Chase. Under his leadership during the next two decades, it became one of the nation's leading training institutes. He also taught at the University of Maryland, Howard University, and the University of Pennsylvania.In 1994, he moved to La Jolla, where he continued teaching, writing, lecturing, and making films.
Mr. Haley and his wife, filmmaker and anthropologist Madeleine Richeport-Haley, produced 25 training videos.He was the founding editor of “Family Process,” the first journal in the field of family therapy, and was co-founder of the Family Therapy Institute in Washington, D.C. He had been a professor at the University of Maryland, Howard University and the University of Pennsylvania. For the past nine years, he had taught at Alliant International University's Scripps Ranch campus.
He was the author of more than 100 scholarly papers and 21 books, including "Strategies of Psychotherapy" (1963), "Uncommon Therapy" (1972), "Leaving Home: The Therapy of Disturbed Young People" (1981), and "The Power Tactics of Jesus Christ and Other Essays" (1999). Mr. Haley is survived by his wife, Madeleine Richeport-Haley; daughter, Kathleen Haley of Richmond; sons, Gregory of San Diego and Andrew of Conshohocken, Penn.; four grandchildren; and one great-grandchild.

15. OBITUARY: ALBERT ELLIS (1923-2007) THE OBIT IS NOT THE END:...MICHAEL ELLNER: I couldn't help notice the seriousity in the various "obits" that I was reading about the death of Dr. Albert Ellis, yesterday. It seems to me, the best way to honor the good doctor's lighthearted approach to life was to announce his death in a lighthearted way.
Here goes: Pioneering Psychotherapist, Albert Ellis Kicks the Bucket at 93: All kidding aside, DR Albert Ellis will be remembered as one of the most influential psychologists in history. Some may be surprised to learn that Dr. E. was a major influence in developing my own "Directed" self-help programs as an alternative way to practice hypnosis. It's true.
In marking the passing of DR Ellis - I want to thank him for his major contributions to humanity -- radical alternatives to the destructive theory and practice of psychoanalysis. Thank You DR Ellis! “The trouble with most therapy is that it helps you feel better, But you don't get better. You have to back it up with action, action, action.” Albert Ellis, The New York Times interview 2004.

16. OBITUARY: HAROLD CRASILNECK (1921-2008): Dallas, Texas: July 17, 2008--Dr. Harold B. Crasilneck, PhD who has received national and international recognition for his groundbreaking research in the application of hypnosis in clinical psychology died on June 7th, following a lengthy illness. He was 87 years-old. Dr. Crasilneck was born in San Antonio, Texas, the son of Kate and John Crasilneck. He grew up hunting, fishing and camping with his many friends in the Texas Hill Country. He attended Beacon Hill Elementary School; Mark Twain Junior High School; and Thomas Jefferson High School and was one of the finest musicians to come from San Antonio. His trumpet playing achieved outstanding recognition and he won local, state and national awards. He was awarded a musical scholarship to St. Mary's University, where he distinguished himself as an outstanding student and musician.

Dr. Crasilneck attended St. Mary's for two years and the University of Texas at Austin for six months. It was then World War II broke out and he enlisted in the armed forces. He joined the United States Marine Corps and based at Camp Pendleton for training before being deployed to New Zealand. He was assigned to the 3rd Marine Division sent to Guadalcanal and Bougainville where he participated in intense jungle combat. Dr. Crasilneck earned the rank of Sergeant. During the campaign in the Pacific, he became extremely ill with malaria. Following 13 months of recuperation, he was honorably discharged and returned to San Antonio to continue his recovery. Dr. Crasilneck decided to return to college and entered Trinity University and graduated with the highest honors in 1947. He then attended the University of Texas at Austin in 1948 and nine months later earned his Masters Degree in Psychology. He then returned to Trinity as an instructor. Dr. Crasilneck then attended the University of Houston where he earned his PhD in Clinical Psychology in 1954. While at Houston, he was a teaching Fellow. He interned at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School and was asked to join the faculty at the end of his internship. He eventually became Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Psychology and Anesthesiology.

In the late 1950's Dr. Crasilneck, in cooperation with the Southwestern Medical School, utilized hypnosis during surgical procedures and for the control of pain. The most significant application of hypnosis in pain control was to treat severe burn patients. Dr. Crasilneck received many awards for his work in clinical hypnosis and as a medical educator. He was recognized by the American and Texas Medical Associations. Articles about his research were published in the British medical journal, Lancet as well as Life and Time Magazines. Over the half century of private practice, Dr. Crasilneck impacted many people's lives, not only his patients, but those within the medical community. Dr. Crasilneck lectured all over the world and continued to teach on the clinical faculty of Southwestern Medical School, an institution he was dedicated to and loved deeply. He retired in October of 2007. Dr. Crasilneck was the first President of both the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis and the American Society for Clinical Hypnosis. He also served as President of the Dallas Psychological Association and the North Texas Society for Clinical Hypnosis. He has received many prestigious awards, including being honored for the Raymond Willie Distinguished Chair, held by Nobel Laureate Alfred Gilman at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School. Dr. Crasilneck was always surrounded by his loving family. His loving wife Sherry has been his companion for 49 years. Their love and devotion for each other is recognized by all who have known them. He is also survived by children Susie and Robert I. Knopf of St. Louis, MO; Leo and Candace E. Hyman of Dallas and Susan and Jonathan C. Knopf of Warren, NJ. Additionally, he is survived by seven grandchildren, Randy Knopf, Brian Rosen, Jennifer Bernstein, Shayna Rosen Taibel, Erin Knopf, Mollie Knopf and Travis Knopf and two great grandchildren Rebecca Knopf and Natalie Taibel. Memorial services will be held at 2:00 pm, Tuesday, June 10 at Sparkman Hillcrest Funeral Chapel with interment at Temple Emanu-El Cemetery in Dallas. In lieu of flowers, please make donations to the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School. Published in the Dallas Morning News on 6/9/2008.

17. OBITUARY: KAY THOMPSON, DDS (1930-1998): JEFFREY K. ZEIG, Ph.D.: [Editor's Note: We have many distinguished and accomplished professionals who are contributors and authors of articles for GO INSIDE magazine. Dr. KayThompson, was a highly visible and honored woman in dentistry and in hypnosis worldwide. She wrote Autohypnosis for Bruxism for us. All of us here at GO INSIDE will remember her fondly as an incredible and wonderful person. Jeffrey Zeig, Ph.D., Director of the Milton H. Erickson Foundation, Inc., has provided this following eulogy. - Stephen Lankton, MSW]

June 2, 1998: Kay Thompson, DDS, died Tuesday, May 26, 1998 at 10:20 PM of Aden carcinoma of unknown primary origin. The worlds of hypnosis and dentistry have lost an irreplaceable leader, and a great friend.

I knew Kay for 24 years during which time she was my teacher, advisor, colleague and friend. I first met her in 1974 when she taught at a regional workshop I attended that was sponsored by the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH) .She intimidated me. She was an imposing figure, so sure of herself and so talented. I already knew Erickson, and knew that Kay was one of his primary students. She and Robert Pearson, M.D. were Erickson’s chosen successors in guiding ASCH.

She was a political powerhouse in that organization, and one of its most important and popular teachers. During the next few years I attended a number of Kay’s presentations at various ASCH meetings. I remember her wisdom and followed her advice. She counseled students to learn fundamentals and attend numerous introductory workshops before promoting themselves to more advanced levels. Little did I know that I would one day share the podium with her at professional meetings.

In the early years of the establishment of the Milton Erickson Foundation, Kaywas an invaluable advisor. She had uncanny political instincts. I would present a conundrum to her, and she would respond immediately with an astute analysisand sage advice. I strove to emulate her ability to summarize positions and foresee how parties would react. Kay had an awe-inspiring ability in thisregard. Her predictions were unerring, her analyses of people were tempered and discerning.

She took interest in my personal development, concerned herself with my stresses. Seeing me overwhelmed and harried at one conference, she took me aside and told me to smile more. Hypnotized by her manner of suggesting such simple advice, I have been haunted by it through the years. When you see me smiling through the stresses of a conference, you will know that there is a little "Kay Thompson" inside, guiding me. Once, noticing how I was grinding my teeth, she personalized and sent me a hypnosis tape. I was able to return that favor. When Kay was diagnosed with cancer she asked me to make a hypnosis tape for her.

Kay presented at all of the Erickson Congresses and Seminars from their inception in 1980. Attendees consistently rated her one of the most highly valued speakers. At the Congresses I scheduled myself on panels with Kay. It was a self-serving act. I always learned so much from her. I marveled at her wisdom and her clever turns of phrases. Her rapid-fire word plays were spellbinding. I remember her talking about pain control by saying that pain was like a pane of glass.

The pane allowed the light to pass through it and provided protection from conditions outside. There could be warmth inside the pane. There could be quiet on the inside of the pane, etc. She taught me to use language more facilely, emphasizing both direct and indirect suggestions. She taught me invaluable lessons about speaking to the physiology, not merely the psychology, of patients. I learned from her the importance of motivation statements to augment suggestions. It was this contribution to the field of hypnosis of which she was most proud.

Kay did not publish much, but she did contribute five chapters to proceedings of Erickson Congresses. There is much to be learned by careful study of these papers that combine both experiential and didactic learnings. In recent years Kay was a friend, even somewhat of an older sister. We talked about our relationships, our stresses, and our activities. She was always so care-full with me, wanting the best for me. She took real pleasure in my personal growth.

Kay Thompson was born in 1930. She would have been 68 on her next birthday. She received both her BS (1951) and DDS (1953) from the University of Pittsburgh. She graduated from dental school as the only woman in her class. Kay was in-full-time dental practice in Pittsburgh from 1953 to 1976, and then continued part-time. She donated time to provide dental services at a residential facility for physically and mentally handicapped adults.

Kay was past president of ASCH and Fellow and recipient of the highest awards of both ASCH and the Society of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. She was the recipient of the Lifetime Achievement award from the Milton H. Erickson Foundation for her contributions to the field of psychotherapy. She was only the second female ever elected to the Board of Trustees of the American Dental Association, and was honored by that group for her exemplary service. She was the first woman to be elected president of the Pennsylvania Dental its 120 year history.

Kay held a number of academic appointments including serving as a clinical associate professor at the West Virginia School of Dentistry. She traveled nationally and internationally to lecture on hypnosis, language and pain/healing control. She received numerous awards and held prestigious positions of leadership in many hypnosis and dental organizations.

Kay grew up as the only child of the only professional family in a small community. Her father, also a dentist, was an inspiration to her and she emulated his altruism. Kay first met Erickson in 1953 and followed him as a student and colleague through the years. At her first meeting she described how fascinated and terrified she was by Erickson. Of Erickson, Kay said, "He had more influence on me than anyone but the woman who gave birth to me." She later became a great friend of the entire Erickson family.

Kay is survived by her husband, Ralph. We send him our heartfelt condolences. The Board of Directors of the Erickson Foundation is planning a special tribute to Kay. We are setting up a fund that will be used to advance the causes that she held so dear. Those who wish to contribute can earmark their bequest to the "Kay Thompson Fund." Kay gave so much to so many. We will miss her wisdom and spirit. I will miss a trusted friend.

KAY THOMPSON INFORMATION FROM THE PARSONS-FEIN TRAINING INSTITUTE: (KAY THOMPSON, DDS: 1930 – 1998) Artist and Master of the Language of the Unconscious: "In each of us lies sleeping beauty, wasted potential, dying dreams. We sleep and live in dormant twilight, never knowing what it means to live, to love the bits of heaven that we can unearth deep in our hearts; not recognizing that our salvation is ever-present in those parts that we have disowned, denied, forgotten. The thorns of fear thwart faint attempt. The prince is courage, the kiss believing and then with these our life begins."- Kay’s Student "Hypnosis is a way of learning to listen again."

Kay Thompson used wordplay, alliteration, metaphor to unhook habitual word associations to free the unconscious to play. We will watch the dance between the unconscious of the artist and of the subject. Here are examples of some of Kay’s wordplay that access the creative child in all of us: "You may not know but you can know how." "Making unexpected remarks and occasional astute observations all go into making trance talk effective." "Many natural everyday relationships can be very trance enhancing. Trances start a trend of transferring the tendency to trance out temporarily by tempering the tenor and the tempo of the times tempting us to take the trip together. You seem to be seen to transcend the mundane into the magic of the mosaic of many memories." "And you can become so entranced with really knowing all there is you need to know about how to make the meaning of this listening learning change into something that it wasn’t when it began, only because you had not thought about it as being what you didn’t think it was." "Inhibitions are tied up in ‘nots’ and we make so many things naughty Rather because they are knotty, and not just plain ‘nots.’ And we do not know the things we know until it is too late to go back and Pick up the pieces of the ribbon that got tied into The knots that we didn’t know how to unknot. But you can pick at even the most powerful knot and retie it into a Beautiful bow that will bow to the need to know that it was once a knot But know it is not a knot now." "Feed them the words that are symbols of their experience."  Kay said about her favorite song: "Every line in ‘The Rose’ is a metaphor:"

‘…I say love, it is a flower

and you its only seed…

‘When the night becomes too lonely

And the road becomes too long

And you think that love is only

For the lucky and the strong

Just remember in the winter, far beneath the bitter snows,Lies the seed, that with the sun’s love, in the spring becomes the rose.’ - Amanda McBroom

Kay Thompson was the first female student in the University of Pittsurgh’s School of Dentistry, the first female President of ASCH, and was President of the Pennsylvania Dental Association. For seven years she fought in court against Blue Cross and Blue Shield on behalf of the Dental Association - and won! She worked with Milton Erickson for twenty-seven years and what she absorbed from him, consciously and unconsciously, she made her own. She wrote many papers and received many awards of distinction in Europe and America (Amsterdam, Italy, Pittsburgh, Phoenix, in addition to others.) Kay’s genius came from her heart. She not only taught the hypnotic connections we can make, she lived them. This video demonstrates how even in small unexpected moments, she could shift people’s states of consciousness so brilliantly that they recognized later something profound had happened.

In this presentation we will study a simple outline of how she accesses the flow from conscious to unconscious. We will then review a transcript of her work, highlighting the many strategies and techniques she is using. We can then all sit back and learn in pleasure, watching Kay’s intense focus as her subject moves through various states of nervousness, confusion, curiosity, comfort, humor, excitement, questioning, laughter, joy. She doesn’t miss a beat. You will see how she leads and follows simultaneously. Not one moment is irrelevant. As you go on Kay’s playful journey with her subjects, perhaps you will find your own mastery expanding as you experience hers.

Recommended reading: The Art of Therapeutic Communication: The Collected Works of Kay F. Thompson (2004), edited by Saralee Kane, MSW and Karen Olness, MD. Crown House Publishing, Ltd, Williston, VT.

18. IN MEMORIAM TO BERNARD W. NEWTON (1917-2001): PETER BLOOM: Bernard W. (Fig) Newton died quietly at home on March 23, 2001 of acute leukemia, which complicated his long battle with myelofibrosis. He was 83 years old. He had time to prepare for his end, and, being typically aware of the feelings of those who loved him deeply, he made every effort to support and counsel his family and write his many friends and colleagues to say good-bye and prepare them for his passing. What kind of man was this? The first part is easy. Fig, as he was so affectionately known, attended St. Lawrence University, receiving his Bachelor of Science degree in biology, psychology, and physics in 1939and his Master of Education in 1940. Eleven years later in 1951, he received his Ph.D. in psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles. Predoctoral work included student health services and research projects at UCLA, and, after his doctoral degree, he became a staff psychologist at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Los Angeles while beginning his private practice. During these early years, he developed an interest in hypnosis and then served as president of the California Society of Clinical Hypnosis from 1977 to 1979 and as president of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis (SCEH) from1983 to 1985. He was a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA), Division 30, the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH), and SCEH.

In 1959, he was one of the very early Diplomats of the American Board of Psychological Hypnosis(ABPH). His papers and chapters were numerous, reflecting his early interest in Multiple Personality Disorder (now termed Dissociative Identity Disorder), forensic hypnosis, and the "Hypnotherapist and the Cancer Patient", his 1984 SCEH presidential address. In 1983, he received the Morton Prince Award given by SCEH and awarded "for distinguished contributions to the development of hypnosis in the science and profession of psychology," and in the same year he received the Milton H. Erickson Award given by ASCH, "for excellence in scientific writing." He retired in 1989 and moved with his family to Bozeman, Montana. After his wife, Brownie, died in 1998, he married Patti in 1999, who cared for him until his own death this year. This next part is not so easy. How to capture the essence of the man himself? Perhaps we can discover the answer by looking at some of his own utterances since his move to Bozeman 12 years ago. Within the last decade, Fig began reviewing his own professional life in psychology. He then wondered what his colleagues found when they examined their own experiences. So, a few years ago, Fig began asking a number of friends who shared his love for therapy and hypnosis to describe what they did in therapy and how they understood their role as therapists. I was fortunate to be included in some of these discussions. Whether at ASCH or SCEH annual meetings, he would schedule these "conversations" for an hour or so in his hotel suite in front of a professional video camera and recording device. In the beginning, his good friend, Charlie Pace, helped with the organizational aspects and camera work; then, more recently, Patti became involved. So it happened that at the ASCH meeting in Atlanta inMarch 1999, I found myself comfortably seated with him in front of the camera, unrehearsed, and with no topic at hand. We began talking. His ability to ask the right question and his sensitivity that allowed us to feel comfortable was and is legendary. During this particular conversation, our third or fourth over the years, I decided to reverse the process and interview him. He readily agreed. Although I was aware of his interests, his years of teaching basicprinciples of hypnosis and psychotherapy, and his scholarly contributions to the literature, I wanted to balance these aspects of his professional life with a more personal look at the man himself. With this in mind, I asked him what was sacred to him and what contributed to his search for and attainment of authenticity as a person and therapist. Here is what he said. I am quoting from the videotape of that Sunday morning in Atlanta and have paraphrased and condensed various portions of our conversation to fit the format of this memoriam.(My remarks during our discussion are in italics.)I have always loved my work, and believe that hypnosis has made it possible for me to open myself more easily to the emerging openness ofmy patient. I wasn’t only satisfied seeing them get well, but it was being in that moment of connection that became meaningful and heralded change. Why are these moments special? People struggle throughout theirl ives to get some connection with another human being. Most people don’t experience this very often. Is it important in therapy for a patient and therapist to learn how to develop deep contacts with other human beings? Yes, very much so, and it is as important for the therapist as it is for the patient. I believe it is these moments that provide the core for change in those seeking our help. It is sacred to me. Have you always felt this way about therapy? No, I had to learn it. Early on when I was a graduate student in psychology immediately after World War II, I had studied psychoanalysis and tried very hard to be a good didactic patient in my own psychoanalytic endeavor. But I never found it satisfying in my practice. I tried hard to follow these principles in my work, but I felt little satisfaction that I was actually being helpful. Gradually and yet suddenly, I learned from my patients that I had some-thing to offer just being myself. It was an exciting time of change for me, because it seemed to indicate that being there with each patient, connected in a therapeutic relationship, was more important than using the theories I had been learning in actual practice. Georg Groddek describe show the therapist must allow the patient to change the therapist so that the therapist will be more useful to him or her. Do you agree? Yes, that is how it felt. In letting go of the way I had learned to do therapy, I became more present in each session. By the way, I think my gradual attraction to hypnosis allowed me to experience more freedom to be spontaneous in therapy and in trance work and was another essential element to becoming more authentic as a person and therapist. Why do you think your colleagues feel encouraged and eager to open them-selves up to you in these conversations? What qualities do you have that allow this for us? I like to believe that I have the same qualities that we all do: being present in the relationship, being intuitive and trusting the feelings, and having the courage to be real. I convey that in many ways, by what I say, my body language, and my facial expressions. I know when Ibegin to feel it, but if each of these ways of communicating is not in con-cert with each other, something is wrong. Have you always known at some level that when you sit down you can create that kind of deep connectedness? Yes, I have known that for a long time, but it was hard in the beginning to let it happen. Now it comes more easily to me, and I think it makes me abetter therapist. I guess that has to do with striving and becoming authentic. I hope so. In closing, there is an old saying. "A man’s wealth is the sum of his relationships." Fig was one of the wealthiest men I knew. Although we will miss him greatly, we will surely continue to celebrate his life, his wisdom, and his love.

19. IN MEMORIAM HAROLD P. GOLAN (1920-2003): MAX P SHAPIRO: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL HYPNOSISHarold P. Golan, D.M.D., was born on September 20, 1920, the first child of first-generation immigrant parents in Dorchester, Massachusetts. At Boston Latin School, Dr. Golan became a well-rounded classical scholar and grew to love the power, sound, and elegance of the English language. At the University of Massachusetts he majored in zoology, and he was later accepted into the Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, among the premier dental schools in the country. After serving as a dentist in the Army during World War II, he entered a residency in oral surgery at Boston City Hospital.

Dr. Golan found himself drawn to clinical hypnosis, and studied with Milton Erickson, M.D., and Lawrence Staples, DM.D. He always loved both the technical craft of dentistry as well as the emotional bonds forged with appreciative patients in a successful general dentistry practice. However, his activities in clinical hypnosis became his professional passion.

Dr. Golan became a pioneer in the development and use of clinical hypnosis for dental phobias, pain control, smoking cessation, and other problems. He taught the use of hypnosis in dentistry as a faculty member of the Tufts University School of Dental Medicine and the Boston University School of Dental Medicine. Among the first members of the New England Society of Clinical Hypnosis (NESCH), he was soon elected as President, and then served for many years as Secretary. He succeeded his mentor, Dr. Staples, as Workshop Director for the New England Society of Clinical Hypnosis, a position he held for twenty-three years. Over the course of his career, he mentored hundreds of residents, fellows, and practicing clinicians in hypnosis. He pursued the development and use of clinical hypnosis techniques with uncommon vigor and passion, lecturing and teaching regionally, nationally, and internationally. He was among the earliest members and served as President of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis. For many years he was President of the American Board of Dental Hypnosis, helping dentists to achieve Diplomate status. Following in the footsteps of another of his mentors, Dr. Erickson, Dr. Golan was famous for his sensitivity to the needs of the individual patient, tailoring each hypnotic protocol to the unique circumstances of the individual. He forcefully advocated for the addition of academic courses and clinical experience in hypnosis to all levels of professional training curricula.

As a clinician and teacher, Dr. Golan embodied the powerful use of self. Early on in his hypnotic career, he developed a twenty-minute self-hypnotic protocol which he practiced daily. Long before the current interest in "energy medicine," his technique involved mentally smiling at all of his body's component parts. He believed the effectiveness of this technique was more than validated by his active enjoyment of his passions for tennis, sailing, and vigorous exercise into his ninth decade. Always interested in self-development and acquiring new skills, he learned tai chi ch'uan at the age of eighty to speed his recovery from an injury. Both personally and professionally, he balanced a respect for tradition with openness to innovation and development.

Dr. Golan felt that patients relied upon the doctor's belief and conviction in the likelihood of therapeutic success. He believed (as Tip O'Neill said about politics) that all hypnosis is personal. Therefore, the active and ongoing pursuit of personal growth and change was a central theme of his teaching. As Director of the NESCH Workshop, Dr. Golan offered a special small group (the "Skeptics Group") for those participants who were having difficulty going into trance. This experience would almost invariably be extremely powerful for participants, many of whom then became champions of hypnosis. Dr. Golan was ahead of his time in many respects. Like Dr. Erickson, he believed in the central importance of results. He felt that hypnotic physiological effects (e.g., glove anesthesia) served as the most powerful ratifiers of trance experience. As a dentist, he was quite comfortable assuming responsibility for his patient's physical and emotional safety. Feeling safe and sound, patients would be emboldened to make changes. He also agreed with Dr. Erickson's position that the patient's presentation in his office was a statement of readiness to change, and he wasted no time in diving into the therapeutic enterprise. Dr. Golan believed that the doctor's authenticity (i.e., Carl Rogers' "congruence") was crucial to the establishment of a therapeutic alliance and the healing enterprise. His own use of hypnosis for healing, health, and personal growth was therefore a powerful foundation for his clinical effectiveness. Dr. Golan was a fervent believer in the importance of scientific thinking and experimental evidence to shape clinical practice. He was a prolific author and actively contributed to the scientific literature on phobias, pain, habit control, anxiety management, healing, bruxism, and hypnotic techniques. Consistent with his belief in the importance of balance, he himself balanced his intellectual prowess with a remarkable capacity for clinical intuition. He considered his intuitive abilities to be among the most exciting ways to utilize his unconscious mind. In addition to his mastery of dental technique, he was an extraordinarily talented "natural therapist." Dr. Golan routinely encouraged his students and patients to "trust the unconscious." He also balanced his prodigious intellect with noteworthy physical prowess. Furthermore, his capacity for rigorous thinking was balanced with a well-developed appreciation for sensory experience (especially, music.) It is no coincidence that, within his own family, half pursued medical/ dental/legal professions, while the other half pursued professions in the musical world.

Harold passed away on February 26, 2003. He had recently suffered a series of health crises, but died peacefully surrounded by his family. He is survived by his wife Irene, their children David, Jay, Jeffrey, and Jeanne, and their seven grandchildren. Harold was laid to rest on March 2, 2003 and the chapel was filled to overflowing for the funeral. His children and grandchildren sang, played music, and spoke movingly about him. At the end, there was an overpowering feeling in the room of the strength and warmth of Harold's "inner smile".

20. OBITUARY OF STEVE DE SHAZER (1940-2005): BRIAN CADE: Steve de Shazer, brief therapist and one of the primary developers of the solution-focused approach, has died. Having been struggling for some time with health problems, he was taken ill whilst on a flight over Europe and taken directly to a hospital in Vienna where he died on Sunday 11 September.

I first met Steve and his wife Insoo Kim Berg over quarter of a century ago. He was tall and gangly and was dressed like a lumberjack. I was immediately impressed with how badly he lectured (then) and how interesting his thinking was. We became friends. We shared in common the experience of being profoundly influenced by Jay Haley’s early seminal book, Strategies of Psychotherapy (1963), and a fascination with the work of Milton H. Erickson. Steve recently wrote, After Strategies – which made so much sense to me – everything else was (poorly written) nonsense until I found Advanced Techniques of Hypnosis and Therapy which is a selection of Milton H. Erickson’s papers. It is not going too far to say that these two books changed my life and shaped my future. (de Shazer, 1999)

The other great influence on Steve was the mentorship of, and his subsequent long and close friendship with, John Weakland of the Brief Therapy Center, Palo Alto. It was John who put him in touch with Insoo and so must take, to some extent, either the credit or blame for some of what followed. In 1978 the two of them moved to Milwaukee to set up what they called "the MRI of the Midwest" where with a group of like-minded colleagues they developed the ways of thinking and the practices that became known as the solution-focused approach. This approach was based on the assumption of pre-existing abilities, on client strengths and resources, and on the certainty that there have invariably already been exceptions to the behaviours, ideas, feelings and interactions associated with problems. Therapy would be focused on an amplification of these exceptions and on helping clients, through techniques such as the miracle question and scaling questions to build a detailed picture of how their futures could be different. It was not seen as necessary to explore problems or their origins unless the client particularly wished to do so. Steve was the author of many chapters and articles and of five books, each demonstrating a stage in the development of the thinking behind and the practicing of the approach. A sixth book, More Than Miracles, will be published posthumously.

Steve had been a professional jazz saxophone player and his interest in the spaces between the notes as much as the notes themselves seemed to be very much reflected in his minimalist approach to therapy. He also loved the character of Sherlock Holmes and shared Holmes’s determination never to draw a conclusion ahead of the facts. He described hypothesising as "a disease" which gave therapists the illusion of knowing something. He loved philosophy and cooking - at which he excelled - and taking long walks.

When I think of the many, many hours I spent with Steve we rarely talked about therapy. We talked mostly about literature or listened to music (classical or jazz) and drunk beer, another of his passions. He was prepared to walk miles to sample a particular beer and once walked me practically to a standstill around the many pubs of Heidelberg, each having its own special brand. He also brewed his own.

The world of therapy has lost a clear and original thinker, a creative iconoclast, and many of us have lost a valued friend. He was not always the easiest of people to get on with. He could be very opinionated, was somewhat eccentric and did not suffer fools easily. He seemed much more at home in Europe than in America and, in fact, spent a lot of his time here. He once told me, "American audiences don’t seem to like me: they don’t understand my sense of humour". He was much more caring than his sometimes gruff and abrupt exterior suggested. I found him, as I know others did, to be a very good friend.

The last conversation I had with Steve was by telephone some months ago. We were bemoaning the fact that so many teenage girls were coming to see us and subsequently referring their friends to us, and that we had discovered a facility for engaging and talking with these young women - "forty five years too late".

21. ROY RICHARD GRINKER (1914-2006) EDUCATOR IN PSYCHIATRY: MARVINE HOWE: NEW YORK TIMES: Dr. Roy Richard Grinker, an educator in psychiatry and psychoanalysis for nearly six decades, died Sunday at his home in Chicago. He was 92. The cause was a stroke, said his grandson, Dr. Roy R. Grinker 3d. Dr. Grinker was the founder and former chairman of the Institute of Psychosomatic and Psychiatric Research and Training at Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago.

He studied under Sigmund Freud from 1933 to 1935. At the centennial of Freud's birth in 1956, he said Freud had left "much unfinished business to his followers, which can only be accomplished if yesterday's ideas are considered as points of departure and not as fixed limitations."

Dr. Grinker influenced many leading psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. Besides establishing the Psychosomatic and Psychiatric Institute in 1950, he was professor emeritus of three universities: the University of Chicago, the University of Illinois and Northwestern.

He was also a longtime chief editor of the American Medical Association's Archives of General Psychiatry. He wrote 28 books and 368 professional articles. His best-known book, "Men Under Stress" (The Blakiston Company, 1945), was written with Maj. John P. Spiegel when Dr. Grinker was a colonel in the Air Force and discusses neurotic disabilities of servicemen.

A native of Chicago, he graduated from the University of Chicago and received his M.D. from Rush Medical College in 1921. He began his academic career as an instructor in neurology at Northwestern in 1925. He headed the Psychosomatic and Psychiatric Institute until his retirement in 1976, but continued teaching until 1989.

He was awarded the Distinguished Service Award of the American Psychiatric Association in 1972. That same year, his associates and former students published a book in his honor, "Modern Psychiatry and Clinical Research" (Basic Books).


I had great respect for Dr. Spiegel whose mind was open to the wider field of hypnotherapy. I offer this tribute to him.

SUBJECT: MEMORIAL FOR HERBERT SPIEGEL, M.D. AT COLUMBIA FEBRUARY 19TH DATE: Monday, January 18, 2010 1:19 AM: My family and I are touched by the outpouring of sympathy, stories, respect, and affection for Dad and we thank you for it. Columbia University is planning a memorial in Dad's honor starting at 9:30 on the morning of Friday, February 19th. We will discuss his life and contributions to psychiatry prior to the Fourth Annual Herbert Spiegel Lecture, to be given by noted emotion researcher, Richard Davidson, from the University of Wisconsin. You are cordially invited to attend. I will send more details as they become available.

With warm wishes, David

David Spiegel, M.D.

Willson Professor in the School of Medicine

Associate Chair

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences

Stanford University School of Medicine

401 Quarry Road, Office 2325

Stanford, CA 94305-5718

650 723-6421 phone

650 498-6678 fax



MEMORIAL SERVICE HERBERT SPIEGEL, M.D. (JUNE 29, 1914 - DECEMBER 15, 2009): Friday, February 19 at 9:00 AM in the 1st Floor Hellman Auditorium, Columbia University

New York State Psychiatric Institute

1051 Riverside Drive

New York, NY 10032

Please join us at 11:00, following the memorial, for the Fourth Herbert Spiegel Lecture by Richard J. Davidson, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin: "Order and Disorder in the Emotional Brain."


Dr. Spiegel’s contributions to the fields of Hypnosis and Psychiatry, many of which were developed during his decades of teaching and research at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, will be discussed by:

Marcia Greenleaf, Ph.D., Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine; Medical Staff, Lenox Hill Hospital, NYC; Past Secretary: American Society of Clinical Hypnosis

Donald Connery, Journalist and Author of The Inner Source: Exploring Hypnosis with Dr. Herbert Spiegel

Richard Kluft, M.D., Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Temple University School of Medicine; Immediate Past President, Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Past President, American Society for Clinical Hypnosis;

Phillip Muskin, M.D., Professor, Clinical Psychiatry: Chief of Service: Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

Edward Frischholz, Ph.D., North Shore University Health System, Chicago; Past Editor, American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis

Elvira Lang, M.D., Associate Professor of Radiology, Harvard Medical School; President and Founder, Hypnalgesics, LLC; President, Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Eric Vermetten, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Head of Research, Military Mental Health, University Medical Center, Utrecht; The Netherlands; Immediate Past President, International Society of Hypnosis

David Spiegel, M.D., Willson Professor and Associate Chair of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine; Past President: Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, American College of Psychiatrists

HERBERT SPIEGEL, DOCTOR WHO POPULARIZED HYPNOSIS, DIES AT 95 - OBITUARY (OBIT) - DUANE MICHALS: NY TIMES Dr. Herbert Spiegel in 1974, working with a patient who wanted to stop smoking. Patients from near and far sought him out. A New York psychiatrist, Dr. Spiegel, who died on Dec. 15 at the age of 95, was far and away the country’s most visible and persuasive advocate for therapeutic hypnosis, having established it as a mainstream medical technique.

Beginning in the 1950s, he described the technique, both its uses and misuses, in magazine articles and in courtrooms. In the 1960s, he developed the first quick and practical test for individual susceptibility to hypnosis; it is still widely used. In later decades he appeared on television programs like "60 Minutes" and he helped treat the woman known as Sybil, whose controversial case became the subject of a book and inspired two television movies. In a famous course at Columbia University, Dr. Spiegel taught generations of doctors the art and science of hypnosis — how concentrated relaxation and suggestion can have a powerful effect on thinking and behavior. His son, Dr. David Spiegel, a psychiatrist at Stanford University, said his father had died in his sleep at his home on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, not far from Elaine’s, where Dr. Herbert Spiegel’s regular table was near Woody Allen’s at what was a fixture of the New York intellectual and creative scene in the 1960s and ’70s.

A trained Freudian analyst, Dr. Spiegel came to see traditional, open-ended psychoanalysis as too costly and meandering for many patients — and hypnosis as a way to accelerate healing, effecting change in some people even in a single session. As Dr. Spiegel’s reputation grew, performers and politicians in New York and prominent people from around the world made their way to his office in Manhattan.

It was in the early ’60s that he filled in for Dr. Cornelia B. Wilbur, the therapist who had been treating a troubled woman named Shirley Mason, who appeared to communicate through several distinct personalities. Her case became the basis for the popular 1973 book "Sybil," by Flora Rheta Schreiber, and two television adaptations, one in 1976 with Joanne Woodward and Sally Field and the other in 2008 with Jessica Lange.

Critics later challenged Dr. Wilbur’s methods, saying they had encouraged the woman’s behavior. Dr. Spiegel agreed. He argued that Sybil had disassociation disorder, not multiple personalities, and he voiced his reservations when the book became part of a debate in recent years over the causes of such disorders. Yet more than anything, it was Dr. Spiegel’s rigorous studies of hypnosis, as well as his easygoing, matter-of-fact presence, that most impressed other doctors and patients.

"He wasn’t Svengali-like; he didn’t have this Mesmer voice," said Dr. Philip R. Muskin, a psychiatrist at Columbia. "He was a regular guy with this Midwestern accent who explained in a very straightforward way that hypnosis was something you could learn that’s useful. He really took the techniques out of the dark alleys, out of Hollywood and the world of the circus, and moved them into mainstream medicine."

Many therapists now use hypnosis to aid treatment, and the National Institutes of Health have financed dozens of studies of the technique to reduce pain and accelerate healing.

Herbert Spiegel was born on June 29, 1914, in McKeesport, Pa., one of four children of Sam and Lena Spiegel. His father ran a successful wholesale grocery business; his mother, the household.

Their only son attended the University of Pittsburgh before enrolling in medical school at the University of Maryland, where he graduated in 1939. After completing his internship at St. Francis Hospital in Pittsburgh, he did a residency in psychiatry at St. Elizabeth’s Hospital in Washington, where he first learned hypnosis.

But it was during World War II — Dr. Spiegel served as a battalion surgeon in North Africa from 1942 to 1946 — that the young doctor first witnessed the power of hypnosis. "I discovered that it was possible to use persuasion and suggestion to help the men return to previous levels of function" after severe combat stress, he later wrote. He used the same techniques on himself after suffering a shrapnel wound that earned him a Purple Heart.

Dr. Spiegel’s first marriage, to Dr. Natalie Shainess, ended in divorce. In addition to his son, he is survived by a daughter, Dr. Ann Spiegel, a pediatrician in Phoenix; four grandchildren; and his wife, Marcia Greenleaf, a therapist who collaborated with him and who was with him at his death. Dr. Spiegel received a long list of awards and held academic appointments at a number of institutions, including John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York University and, for more than 20 years, Columbia. His book "Trance and Treatment: Clinical Uses of Hypnosis," written with his son, is a classic in the field. But he was, until the end, a therapist. "He saw a patient a few days before he died," his son said.

SPIEGEL REBUTS NEGATIVE STATEMENT BY SOCIETY FOR CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENT HYPNOSIS: Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis Resolution adopted October, 1978: "The society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis Views with alarm the tendency for police officers with Minimal training in hypnosis and without a broad Professional background in the healing arts employing Hypnosis to presumably facilitate recall of witnesses or Victims. The Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis Views it as unethical to train lay individuals in the Use of hypnosis, to collaborate with laymen in the use Of hypnosis, or to serve as a consultant for laymen Who are utilizing hypnosis.

REBUTTAL TO IHS STAND ON POLICE USE OF FORENSIC HYPNOSIS: Dr. Herbert Spiegel, Professor of Psychology Columbia University School of Medicine: Dr. Herbert Spiegel, In a letter to Dr. Fred Frankel, President of the International Society of Hypnosis, published in the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis (Vol.. 23, No. 2), sought a reconsideration of the ISH resolution regarding the use of hypnosis by non-medical personnel, and denying hypnosis to investigators. In part, Dr. Spiegel wrote: "If we have any special knowledge about hypnosis. It is our ethical obligation to share this knowledge with others who in their own field are diligently pursuing their own work. By sharing we can very likely learn from them as well. To presumptuously claim that only we can utilize this knowledge inflates our role, invites ridicule, and undermines our own credibility.

Is a police interrogator any less competent to handle a possible abreaction or to seek appropriate psychiatric or psychological help than a dentist? Since it is well documented that dentist make excellent use of hypnosis, why do we expect less of another professional group whose primary training is likewise not in psychology or psychiatry or medicine."

OBITUARY VIKKI ASHLEY (75 YEARS OLD)DEATH NOTICE: VIKKI ASHLEY’S OBITUARY BY THE TIMES-PICAYUNE: AUG 2009: ASHLEY Dr. Vikki Ashley passed away at the age of 75 in her home on the morning of August 1st, 2009. Vikki was the beloved wife of Dr. Robert Daniels and mother of Donald Rickman, Donna Rickman, and Alan Rickman. She was born in Champaign, IL on October 13th, 1933 as the eldest of 12 children. Vikki majored in music at Manhattanville College where she played the violin, piano, and organ. She later attended the Union Institute where she received her PhD in organizational psychology and management. As an author of three books, Vikki was a multi-talented dynamic woman with expertise in writing, psychology, clinical hypnotherapy, and entrepreneurship. A prominent member of the New Orleans community with her signature red hat she will be greatly missed by all who knew her well. Relatives and friends are invited to attend the visitation at Jacob Schoen and Son Funeral Home, 3827 Canal St. at N. Scott St., on Thursday, August 13th, 2009. Visitation will begin at 1:00 PM followed by a memorial service at 2:00 PM.

COMMENTS: "Dear Bob & All of Vikki's Loved Ones, Our condolences. Vikki will be missed on Delachaise St. as in all the places where she is known and loved." Theresa & Joe LeFevre (New Orleans, LA) "Vikki's enthusiastic and joyful approach to life will be remembered by all who knew her. My thoughts and prayers to her family." Mimi Pelton (Houston, TX) "May your hearts soon be filled with wonderful memories of joyful times together as you celebrate a life well lived." Dr. Bernel Sanders, DCH (College Park, GA) "To The Family of Dr. Vikki Ashley: I was saddened to learn of the death of Vikki. I will remember the family in my prayers, especially during these difficult times, and trust that you will know the special love and comfort that only God can give. ..." "To the family with deepest sympathy. Vikki was our inspiration, mentor and friend. We will never forget you. Sandy, Chris & Noah" Sandy Blum (Metairie, LA)

23. DR. VIKKI ASHLEY (1933-2009): HOW TO BE A BITCH WITH STYLE: About Dr. Vikki Ashley: Vikki Ashley, PhD, CHt is an author, psychologist, clinical hypnotherapist, entrepreneur, musician, former university executive and adjunct professor, politician, developer of innovative and creative programs at local, state and national levels, active volunteer--locally and nationally--and once divorced, single mother, fully responsible for three children. Now mother of seven--one deceased at age 30 from AIDS, two natural children and four spiritual children acquired through a second marriage to Bob Daniels. In addition, she is the eldest of twelve (ten living) and is now the oldest living individual in her entire family. She and Bob live in New Orleans.

Background: Dr. Vikki was born in Champaign, IL October 13, 1933 and grew up in Xenia, Oh where her father was a department head at Wilberforce University and Central State College. She attended Manhattanville College, majored in music education (played piano, organ, violin); briefly attended University of San Diego Law School. She received her PhD in 1974 from the Union Institute in Organizational Behavior and Management. She was the assistant to Dr. Herbert York, Chancellor of the University of California, San Diego at La Jolla at the inception of the university.

Professional: As Director of Educational Opportunity and assistant to the Vice President for Administration and adjunct professor of counseling and guidance at San Diego State University. She was responsible for legislative lobbying for California's first Equal Opportunity Bill. She played a role on the state and national level in lobbying for women's and minority higher educational opportunity. Dr. Vikki left San Diego State to become an entrepreneur and designed and directed the Rockefeller Counseling Institute that changed the way San Diego City Schools implemented counseling and guidance and San Diego State educated counselors. Funded by the Rockefeller Foundation for two years. Dr. Warren Bennis asked her to direct the affirmative action program at the University of Cincinnati and she did so from 1971-1975. She then returned to San Diego, ran for the State Senate from the 40th district, had a great time but lost, and then returned to entrepreneurial life where she remains today as President and CEO of P3 and founder and President of the P3 Wellness Resource and Distribution Center in New Orleans.

Recognitions and Awards: Among special recognitions and awards: March 2002 recognition when the four new simulation laboratories of the Isidore Cohn Student Learning Center were named The Drs. Robert S. Daniels and Vikki Ashley Simulation Laboratories. April 2003, the annual Drs. Robert S Daniels and Vikki Ashley Distinguished Lectureship In Medical Education, a four-year scholarship to Manhattanville College to the distinguished and internationally known Pius X School of Music. Scholarship to University of San Diego Law School. Was appointed by Ronald Reagan to the California Commission on the Status of Women where she chaired the child care committee and presented the first such state report to the federal government chronicling the severe need for child care to support working women and families. She was also the first nonlegislator to chair two committees of the California legislature's joint legislative hearing on child care for the state of California. Was a member of the national Commission on the Status of Women during Executive Order 11264's thrust for equal opportunity for women.

Consultations: Numerous consultations nationally, statewide and local occupied Dr. Vikki's professional life including such clients as the U.S. Navy (San Diego, Pearl Harbor), U.S. Office of Education, HEW; City and County of San Diego, San Diego City Schools, Federal Home Loan Bank Board, College Entrance Examination Board, Center for Research and Development, Berkeley, CA, LSU Healthcare Network, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati Hospital, The Johnson Foundation, Racine, WI,, Federal Executive Institute, Chjarlottesville, VA; American Council on Education, Washington, DC; Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical - San Diego, U.S. Postal Service Western Division, U.S. Postal Service Training and Development Institute - Bethesda, MD;

Life's Work - Now: Her life's work is to communicate - speak, write about and inspire the development of health, wealth, love and perfect self-expression in women especially and in leaders, executives, managers, employees and individuals regardless of gender. Her experience and research have convinced her that one can only be healthy if one is in total control of her or his Self and willing to live the truth that health is the integration and balancing of spiritual, mental, emotional and physical states of energy. Health (and dis-ease states) occur in people, organizations, systems, government and nations!! Dr. Vikki developed a human SWOTs™ (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) process designed to develop and sustain total control of our lives! The foundation for all growth and use of SWOTs rests on the answer to the questions "Who am I?", "Why am I here?" and "What does this all mean?" - applicable to people, organizations, systems, government and nations and represent the "first order of business" when one is confronted with crisis, chaos and significant emotional events (SEEs). Simultaneously we must consciously learn to love our Selfs before we can love others. "Put on your oxygen mask first," says Dr. Ashley, "before you help anyone else put on theirs. You can't help anyone else when you are dead spiritually, mentally, emotionally, or literally! Fill your cup first so you can share from it with others of your choice. Half empty or empty cups breed hostility, resentment and anger. Empty lives do the same. Know Thy Self: your behavior, values, perceptions and goals and keep your eye on your horizon because your thoughts control your life! Remember: You are never late for your appointment with destiny! As a result, you will be healthy, happy and successful."Dr. Ashley describes herself as "a dynamic Cosmic Spark Plug". All who know her agree!

Books authored:

1. How To Be A BITCH With Style: Being In Total Control of Herself. 1999. ISBN 0-9669493-0-7. 504pp. NOLA: Atalaria Publishers

2. Alan's Song of Love: Our AIDS Odyssey. 2000. ISBN 0-9669493-2-3. 224pp. NOLA: Atalaria Publishers.

3. How To Be A BITCH With Style Tool Kit. ISBN 0-9669493-1-5. NOLA: Atalaria Publishers. Coming in 2004.

4. Dr. Vikki: BITCH On the Airwaves. NOLA: Atalaria Publishers.

A Being In Total Control of Herself or Himself! Dr. Vikki Ashley

Dr. Vikki Ashley was a member of he Louisiana Hypnotherapy Organization.

24. IN MEMORY OF CHARLENE ACKERMAN (2009): SHELLEY STOCKWELL-NICHOLAS AND MELISSA ROTH: IN MEMORY OF CHARLENE : SHELLEY STOCKWELL-NICHOLAS: Charlene was my good friend. She was a Board member of the International Hypnosis Federation since it began in 1998. Charlene and I went on many trips together to Sedona and Bali, Indonesia. She was a delight and I sorely miss her. Here, in her own words, are how she came to be a hypnotist:"After my youngest son married, I went to a hypnotist to overcome childhood trauma. It really made a difference. I wanted to be a hypnotist since I was six years old. I devoured all the information, conferences and training I could get my hands on. In 1992, I began teaching hypnosis to help others the way hypnosis had helped me. I left a 17-year career as a realtor, and answered a newspaper as a traveling salesperson/counselor for children with bed-wetting problems. Health problems (breast and kidney cancer) kept me home when my mother was dying of lung cancer. I was introduced to Irene Hickman, the next thing I knew I was off to Manila for psychic surgery where I experienced a profound healing. I created ‘The Great American Smoke Out’ using hypnosis to help others quit smoking as a fundraiser for the American Cancer Society. The clinics went over very well and I got many referrals. I shared my ideas and I met many other hypnotherapists who held the same vision of bringing hypnosis to the world. I brought these teachers into my hometown of Janesville, Wisconsin: Gisella Zukowsky, Irene Hickman, Marx Howell, Henry Leo Bolduc, Dr. Winifred Blake Lucas, Dr. Shelley Stockwell and Ormond McGill all joined me. Since 1999 I have been a hypnosis instructor for medical doctors at the College of Psychology in Kaohsiung, Taiwan and Australia and I serve on the Board of Advisors for the International Hypnosis Federation. I now investigate near death experiences (which I call Dear Death Experiences), crystal skulls, the Virgin Mary, and dreams and visions."

CHARLENE FROM HER KIDS: "Thanks Mom for all you’ve given and all that you will continue to give. You have left us with an example of living life to its fullest and following your dreams. The lives you’ve touched are countless and grateful. We know that you lived for your grandkids, and they will always remember their "goofy" Grandma A. We are so proud of you!"

CHARLENE FROM MELISSA ROTH: Charlene was ill for some time but didn't realize it. We did a joint training in Sedona in April and she was having digestive problems and flagging energy but she had a great time. I insisted on sightseeing and she had fun but it wore her out. She said age was catching up to her. Then, on July 2 words coming out of her mouth were not the ones going on in her head. She had a small stroke. They picked up that her enzymes were off when they ran general blood work, did a scan and found spots on both her pancreas and liver. [Editor’s note at that time she began chemotherapy] She got out of the hospital and went on an Alaskan cruise for 10 days and had a blast. Then, she flew to Boston to speak at a guild convention but was hospitalized in Boston and never got to do her presentation. [Editor’s note: She told Traci Birken, "This is no big deal I will recover from this and write about it in one of my books." Traci believed her]. She was hospitalized again when she got home to Wisconsin. I talked to her the day she got out. She was surprised and a little aghast that they sent to hospice. She told me, "They think I'm going to die." It didn't enter her consciousness that she would.I think it is very important what we say to ourselves. Last October, I confided to her a vision I had in September. The vision was that my stay in Alabama for this long was complete and I could leave now. I meant I was free to relocate. She jumped on it and started talking about how she couldn't wait to go "home." Finally, I stopped her and explained that in my Southern idiom "go home" meant relocate; not leave the planet. She had run on for several minutes by then. I wondered about it but didn't say anything. I guess I should have. Fortunately, Charlene didn't realize she was ill until July. So, she didn't suffer long. That's good.

25. OBITUARY FOR LEON CHERTOK (1911-1991): PSYCHOANALYSIS: LEON CHERTOK (1911-1991): A French psychiatrist and psychoanalyst of Russian origin, Leon Chertok (Lejb Tchertok) was born October 31, 1911, in Lida (a Byelorussian city near Vilnius, Lithuania) and died July 6, 1991, in Deauville, France. Because of the educational quotas for Jews in Poland, Chertok studied medicine in Prague, where he defended his dissertation in 1938. On his way to America to escape the Nazi invasion, he stopped in France, where war broke out in 1939. He volunteered for the army, was demobilized in 1940, and entered the Resistance, where he worked mostly with the Jewish MOI section ("Main-d'oeuvre immigrae," which brought together communist and foreign militants). Appointed to head the Mouvement National contre le Racisme (MNCR) [National Movement Against Racism], he founded the clandestine newspaper Combat medicial and played an active role in saving Jewish children threatened with deportation. He was awarded the Croix de Guerre. After the war his interest turned to psychiatry and he spent several months at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City before being made a doctor of medicine in 1948 by the School of Medicine of the University of Paris. Between 1949 and 1963 he served as a resident and then an assistant at the Hospital of Villejuif, where, with Victor Gachkel, he became co-director of the Center of Psychosomatic Medicine, which they had recently created. From 1963 to 1972 he was head of the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine at the La Rochefoucauld Psychiatry Institute in Paris, then, from 1972 to 1981, the director of the Daejerine Center for Psychosomatic Medicine, in Paris, where, with Didier Michaux, he started a hypnosis laboratory. The founder and executive secretary of the Social Fran- aise de Maedicine Psychosomatique, he was also editor-in-chief of the Revue de medecine psychosomatique.

In 1948 he began a training analysis with Jacques Lacan, which was concluded in 1953, during the first split in the French psychoanalytic movement. In spite of supervised analyses with both Marc Schlumberger and Maurice Bouvet, Chertok the nonconformist was not admitted to the Social Psychanalytique de Paris; the fact that he made extensive use of hypnosis in his practice, becoming one of the leading specialists in France, certainly did not improve his chances of admission. His practice, and the many articles he wrote about his work, ultimately pushed him further and further from traditional psychoanalysis. Nonetheless, in 1973 he co-authored, with Raymond de Saussure, La Naissance du psychanalyse, de Mesmer   Freud, a historical work on the origins of Freudian psychoanalysis that has become a classic. At the request of Philippe Bassine and A. E. Sherozia, he also organized a symposium on the unconscious held in Tbilisi, Georgia, in October 1979, which was attended by a number of psychoanalysts, including several from France. This was the first official event where psychoanalysis was openly discussed in Soviet Russia. However, hypnosis was Chertok's true field of research and the subject of considerable thought. In 1987, toward the end of his life, his work took a new turn when he and Isabelle Stengers began a seminar entitled "L'hypnose, probl ¨me interdisciplinaire."

A CRITIQUE OF PSYCHOANALYTIC REASON, LÂEON CHERTOK: Synopsis: This original and provocative work begins by examining the shift of scientific paradigms that took place in the late eighteenth century, a shift illustrated by the report of a French Royal Commission appointed in 1784 to investigate Mesmerism. The reactions to Mesmerism among the Commission members--in particular the chemist Lavoisier and the botanist Jussieu--crystallized conflicts about the notion of reason and its role as a scientific ideal, about how science ought to be done. The Commission's denunciation of Mesmerism as the work of the "imagination" then serves as the starting point for the authors' reconsideration of the history of psychoanalysis, notably its suppression and repression of phenomena associated with hypnosis--imagination, suggestion, and empathy--in its search to establish itself as a science in accord with the new ideal of scientific reason. Examining the new and often troubled relationship in psychoanalysis between therapeutic effectiveness and advances in theory, the authors highlight the challenge to Freudian ideals in the 1920's by Otto Rank and Sandor Ferenczi. The discrediting of Ferenczi--engineered to a large extent by Ernest Jones and Freud himself--was an attempt to "purify" psychoanalysis of the effects of suggestion. The authors discuss Freud's own therapeutic nihilism occasioned by his recognition that suggestion, by means of the transference relationship, played an uncontrollable role in psychoanalytic therapy. In assessing Freud's legacy, the authors examine evolving notions of psychoanalysis, especially the role played by the effects of suggestion in recent theoretical representations of the development of the subject. Asserting that hypnosis and the challenge it poses to our understanding of human motivation, reason, and the mind/body relationship constitutes the fourth narcissistic wound to the human ego (after those introduced by Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud), the authors analyze Lacan's rejection of hypnosis and explaining the controversy surrounding such phenomena as imagination, suggestion, and empathy, from the late 18th century rejection of Mesmerism by the scientific establishment through psychoanalysts' "purification" of their profession by purging hypnosis, to current notions. Translated from the 1989 French version

MEMOIRS OF A HERETIC: HYPNOSIS AND RESISTANCE: Leon Chertok Memoirs of a Heretic: Hypnosis and Resistance. Leon Chertok’s name remains linked to hypnosis. He is known for his life-long battle to develop and help spread the practice of hypnosis in France and on an international scale. But he was also extremely well-versed in the history of psychoanalysis. He writes with great freedom here about both psychoanalysis and hypnosis, examining the causes — historic, personal and scientific — that pitted them against each other. Chertok, a complex, multi-faceted man, led a varied life, full of surprises and ... Leon Chertok’s name remains linked to hypnosis. He is known for his life-long battle to develop and help spread the practice of hypnosis in France and on an international scale. But he was also extremely well-versed in the history of psychoanalysis. He writes with great freedom here about both psychoanalysis and hypnosis, examining the causes — historic, personal and scientific — that pitted them against each other.

Chertok, a complex, multi-faceted man, led a varied life, full of surprises and contrasts. Fiercely antagonistic of dogmatism in psychoanalysis, he was nonetheless hailed in Moscow for introducing psychoanalysis to the Soviet Union. Though fully aware of Stalinist ravings against pain-free childbirth and of the nostalgia felt by Central European Jews for the shtetl, the lost archipelago, he was indefatigable in his efforts to build bridges between East and West during the Cold War. Though known for disorderliness and for constantly misplacing his keys and eyeglasses, he spent the war years underground in the Resistance, where the slightest slip-up or oversight could result in death. Chertok’s memoirs give us a new insight into the life of the "Father of Hypnosis" — a life spent fighting on various fronts. Léon Chertok was born in Lida, Russia, in 1911. He studied medicine in Czechoslovakia and came to Paris in 1939. After the war, he began training in psychiatry and psychoanalysis. In the following years, his growing interest in psychosomatic disorders led him to develop the much-contested but now generally recognized practice of hypnosis. He died in Paris in 1991.

26. OBITUARY: ANDER SALTER: BEHAVIOR THERAPIST, 82, DIES: KAREN FREEMAN: OCT 1996: Andrew Salter, a psychologist who helped develop the theoretical underpinnings and clinical applications of behavior therapy decades before the field became popular, died on Monday at his home in Manhattan. He was 82. The cause was cancer, said Dr. William J. Salter, his son. Mr. Salter, recognized as a founder of behavior therapy, was one of the first to take the findings from experimental psychology on things like conditioned reflexes and apply those principles to solving people's problems. He rejected psychoanalysis, with its years of probing into the roots of neuroses, arguing in the 1940's that a psychologist could help people who were overly anxious, shy or depressed much more quickly by teaching them to change their behavior. Dr. Gerald C. Davison, a psychology professor at the University of Southern California, wrote that Mr. Salter had been so far ahead of the behaviorist wave of the 1960's that many younger behavioral psychologists were unaware of his work.

He said Mr. Salter's ideas ''have become so widely accepted that he is often not formally cited when contemporary writers in behavior therapy refer to assertion training, expressiveness training, 'getting in touch with one's feelings,' '' all early ideas of Mr. Salter's that became popular later. Dr. Davison made those comments in recommending that the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy present Mr. Salter with its lifetime achievement award, which it will do posthumously, on Nov. 23. He is the second psychologist to win the award. Mr. Salter took an unconventional path to an unusual career. Born in Waterbury, Conn., he graduated from New York University in 1937 with a bachelor's degree in psychology and a burning interest in research, but no patience for postgraduate work. ''I had no desire to spend the rest of my life studying the reactions of rats lost in labyrinths,'' he once said. He plunged into research and clinical practice, which was possible with a bachelor's degree at the time, and was allowed to continue to practice when the state later set more rigid licensing standards. He continued his practice until a few months ago.

Hypnosis had captured Mr. Salter's interest in college, and he looked for ways to use it in clinical practice. He developed techniques for self-hypnosis but initially found it hard to publish his work because he did not have the necessary academic credentials. A psychologist at Yale University, Dr. Clark Leonard Hull, helped him publish an article in The Journal of General Psychology in 1941. He came to national attention that year when Life magazine publicized his ideas about short-term psychotherapy. In 1944, he published his first book, ''What Is Hypnosis?''

In 1949, Mr. Salter published ''Conditioned Reflex Therapy,'' which took many of the principles developed by those who did watch rats run mazes and used them to develop short-term therapies for neuroses. In an interview, Dr. Davison called it ''a landmark book in experimentally based psychotherapy.'' The therapy Mr. Salter employed encouraged patients to express their emotions and used visual imagery to reduce anxiety. It also moved people past their fears by gradually getting them accustomed to being around the things they feared. In 1952, Mr. Salter published ''The Case Against Psychoanalysis,'' in which he looked at the scientific basis for that field and pronounced it weak. The book generated much controversy, said Dr. Alan E. Kazdin, a psychology professor at Yale, particularly because Mr. Salter used such vivid language to wield his literary club. ''One of his phrases was that trying to pin down psychoanalysis was like nailing lemon meringue to a wall,'' Dr. Kazdin said. ''But what made him special was that he didn't just criticize. He came up with an alternative, applied it and helped develop a whole movement.' Besides his son William, of Harvard, Mass., Mr. Salter is survived by his wife, Rhoda; another son, Robert, of Tarrytown, N.Y.; a sister, Bertha Seigel of Montgomery County, Md., and three grandchildren.

Andrew Salter received his BA from NYU, and was "grand-fathered in" as a practicing (Manhattan at 1000 Park Avenue at East 84th Street) psychologist with only a BA. He was a genius who was fluent in seven languages. He first made his mark clearing out the alcoholic's ward at New York's Bellevue Hospital by curing patients with hypnosis and teaching them self-hypnosis (autosuggestion). Salter was the first nationally recognized opponent of psychoanalysis. He was a dedicated critic of Freud. His book "The Case Against Psychoanalysis" was so controversial that the New York Times gave it two reviews, one extremely positive and one extremely negative. Salter proclaimed in this post-war tome, "psychoanalysis has outlived its usefulness." Salter chucked psychoanalysis and replaced it with Pavlovian conditioning under hypnosis. In the conditioned reflex, he has seen the essence of hypnosis. He gave a rebirth to hypnotism by combining it with classical conditioning.

Andrew Salter was and remains the most passionate opponent of Classical Freudian Psychoanalysis and believed that A. A. Brill (who was Sigmund Freud's official English translator) had "homogenized" Freud's work and deliberately omitted passages which Brill considered to be too radical, conflicting or bizarre. Salter spent three years studying everything Freud and his contemporaries had written, including correspondence with Carl Jung and Anna Freud, mostly in the original German before writing his "autopsy" of Psychoanalysis, "The Case Against Psychoanalysis" which today remains the best work ever written critiquing Freud's theories. Today's academic texts "soft pedal" many of Freud's theories, making Psychoanalysis more "palatable" due largely in part to Salter's works and those who came after him. Salter also brought attention to the fact that Pavlovian Psychology was a lot more than simple Classical Conditioning, citing the work done in Pavlov's Russian laboratory for over a quarter of a century. Salter is considered by many to be the "father of behavior therapy". Salter is certainly one of the first psychotherapists who adapted and applied learning theories to clinical practice.

Salter believed in releasing personal "inhibitions" by practicing techniques leading to what he called "excitation" which results in "disinhibition", a state which he described as akin to being slightly drunk. Chapter 8 in "Conditioned Reflex Therapy" contains all of the "exercises" (like the deliberate use of the word "I") leading to a state of excitation. Today, excitation, a term from the Pavlovian lexicon, might be referred to as a combination of "assertion" and "disinhibition". Salter, as did other "behaviorists" of the time, also had his patients learn & practice Edmund Jacobson's technique of "progressive relaxation".

Salter's hypnotic and relaxation techniques were first explained in his book, "What Is Hypnosis?" which was proclaimed a work of genius by Theodore X. Barber, a physiologist who researched hypnotic induction (Barber and Calverley) during the post World War II era. Salter's writing is brilliant and the style excellent. Informative, entertaining and well worth reading. Salter was a serious writer with a great sense of humor and irony. Salter is often considered to be the founder of assertiveness training, although he did not use the term himself. His book Conditioned Reflex Therapy (1949) describes many case studies in which he used primitive assertiveness techniques, termed "excitatory exercises", which became the basis of subsequent behavior therapy for assertiveness.

Salter's techniques were revived among college students during the early and mid 1970's at Bernard M. Baruch College (City University of New York) by student leader and newspaper ("The Ticker") editor Richard Rodriguez, who was introduced to Salter's work by ex-Marine and fellow student, Brian Guerre. After corresponding with Salter, Rodriguez held training sessions on campus in the office of his "Health Sciences Society" organization which he founded in 1972. Over a two year period, Rodriguez trained over two hundred students in progressive relaxation and autosuggestion, which improved the students' ability to study and perform better on exams. Mr. Rodriguez's motto was "relax to your purpose". Richard Rodriguez, a former math & science teacher; former NYCTA (MTA) manager; current member of The National Citizens Coal for Nursing Home Reform [] and the National Association of Social Workers []; currently serves pro bono publico on the Board of Directors of the National Alliance of Family Councils, Inc. ([]) On July 4, 2008, Rodriguez created and posted an online journal exalting liberty and free speech at []. In a recent interview, Rodriguez stated: "Although we now know much more about the workings and chemistry of the brain then was known 65 years ago, Salter's techniques remain extremely effective and life altering. His works remained in print for over 25 years and have been translated in over a dozen languages and his books have won numerous awards." The Salter family has recently promoted the re-publication of "Conditioned Reflex Therapy" which was Salter's most influential work. Besides his son William, of Harvard, Mass., Mr. Salter is survived by his wife, Rhoda; another son, Robert, of Tarrytown, N.Y.; a sister, Bertha Seigel of Montgomery County, Md., and three grandchildren.

27. OBITUARY: TONY GIBSON (1914-2001): Dr Hamilton Bertie (Tony) Gibson died in Cambridge on March 22nd, 2001 at the age of 86. From 1970 to 1976 he was Principal Lecturer and Head of the Department of Psychology at Hatfield Polytechnic (now the University of Hertfordshire) and, prior to retiring in 1979, Senior Research Fellow, a position he thereafter retained in an honorary capacity. Tony was also a Clinical Psychologist and is best known in that field for his Spiral Maze Test, a widely used instrument for assessing psychomotor ability. Tony's first choice of career was medicine, and in 1934 he embarked on a MB Part I at Kings College London. However, he abandoned this and it was not until 1956 that he became a graduate, with a first-class honors degree in sociology from the London School of Economics. Thereafter he was drawn to psychology. He qualified in clinical psychology in 1957. He was a research assistant under Hans Eysenck at the Institute of Psychiatry from 1958 to 1961 and he completed his doctoral dissertation in 1962. He worked and published research on the Maudsley Personality Inventory, notably the Junior version. From 1961 to 1969 he was a research psychologist at the Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge, his main work being in delinquency. At an early stage in his academic career, Tony had an interest in suggestibility and hypnosis, which he shared with several of his colleagues at the Institute of Psychiatry, including Eysenck himself and W.D. Furneaux. From 1974 onwards he published papers on hypnotic susceptibility, theories of hypnosis, historical aspects, and professional and legal issues. It was largely due to his initial efforts that 1978 saw the founding of the British Society of Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis (BSECH). For many years he was its president. His first academic book was an introduction to hypnosis (Hypnosis: Its Nature and Therapeutic Uses, London: Peter Owen, 1977).

In the period following his retirement until his death, he was extraordinarily active and prolific in his writing, which reveals the wide range of his interests. He continued to publish papers on hypnosis, and one further book on that subject appeared that he and I co-authored (Hypnosis in Therapy by H.B. Gibson and M. Heap, Hove and London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1991). He also wrote a biography of Hans Eysenck (Hans Eysenck: The Man and His Work, London: Peter Owen, 1981) and books on the psychology of pain, ageing and sex. Tony had an interesting life. He was from a comfortable middleclass background in Essex and was educated at Cranleigh public school. Following his abandonment of his medical training he was attracted to the Bohemian life of Fitzrovia, Soho and Bloomsbury in London. At one stage he worked as an artist’s life model and his handsome face became one of the best known in the country when he posed for an advertisement for Brylcreem. In 1940 an RAF cap was added plus the caption 'For active service' and he became known as the 'Brylcreem Boy'. In fact, by then Tony had become an anarchist and was a conscientious objector. Amongst other things he spent the war as an ambulance man and a farm labourer. The story is told that his first callout was to attend two soldiers, one of whom had bumped his nose, while the other had fainted at the sight of the blood. From 1945 to 1953 he was first a handyman and then a teacher of woodwork and biology at Burgess Hill, a progressive school in Hampstead, London. He and his partner Betty Cummings (they did not actually marry until 1979) were members of the Forward Movement, an anarchist group within the Peace Pledge Union. He published papers and pamphlets on themes such as work, religion and libertarianism. In 1952 he wrote a pamphlet, published by Freedom Press, entitled Youth for Freedom, Freedom for Youth, in which he expressed his optimism in the future through fostering free will by liberal education. Betty, who was a crucial support to him, died in 1984 and from then on his companion was Carol Graham. He and Betty had two children, Peter and Jenny. I knew Tony professionally and personally from around 1978, when BSECH was founded. However, it was not until 1985 that I discovered that he had an active interest in skepticism. The occasion was the 3rd Annual International Conference on the Paranormal at University College London, sponsored by CSICOP. Many of the leading lights of the skeptical movement were there. At the end of one lecture, a very tedious exposition of the fallacy that we are in the Age of Aquarius, Tony's hand shot up and in characteristic form, he bawled out the question, 'Why do waste your time on such a load of codswallop?' Later he wrote articles and letters on skeptical matters, notably alternative medicine (e.g. Quackupuncture: A question of medical ethics, The Skeptic 1992, 9, 18-20) and religion – he was an aggressive atheist.

Tony’s character was as rich and complex as his life. Both in writing and in voice he was famously abrupt and outspoken. He was committed to science and rationality and he detested intellectual pretensions to power and authority that were not otherwise based, hence his belief in anarchism and, in later life, his attacks on New Age occultism, alternative medicine and anything that he perceived as charlatanism. In company he was never, ever dull and was often acerbically very amusing. He had a keen sense of the ridiculous and delighted in exploiting the absurdity of situations in which he occasionally found himself. He did not suffer fools gladly. He had the loudest of stage whispers and a lifelong stammer. He was at all times his own man. He hated the restrictions that old age and infirmity imposed upon him; even so, it is a great sadness that this was reflected in the manner of his death.

I wish there were more people like Tony. But not too many. The following is a piece that Tony Gibson wrote for the BSECH Newsletter in 1982/3 and which is reprinted in the 2001 issue of the Skeptical Intelligencer. It is 'classic Tony'.

28.  OBITUARY: DR. ELLIS LIPSITZ (SEPT 22: 1919 - MARCH 24, 2010): DR. ELLIS LIPSITZ HELPED ERADICATE TUBERCULOSIS IN ST. LOUIS: MICHAEL D. SORKIN: ST. LOUIS POST-DISPATCH: MARCH 2010: Ellis Lipsitz was 2 years old when his father, a St. Louis physician, died after treating a patient and accidentally pricking himself with a needle. The father, Dr. Samuel Lipsitz, developed an untreatable infection. That was 1921, seven years before the introduction of penicillin. Ellis followed the father he never really knew into medicine, became a battlefield psychiatrist during World War II, returned to St. Louis and joined the team of doctors who helped eradicate tuberculosis from the city.

Then he trained in hypnosis and helped patients quit smoking, get over fears or give birth without drugs.

Dr. Ellis Lipsitz died Wednesday (March 24, 2010) at Sunrise on Clayton in Richmond Heights. He was 90 and had lived in Clayton. One of his patients, Joanne Greene, a fitness instructor from Creve Coeur, credits him with saving her stepfather's life after seeing him at a party and immediately sending him to a doctor, who performed a quadruple bypass operation. Later, Greene said, Dr. Ellis helped her recover from panic attacks. Instead of prescribing drugs, he taught her to relax by hypnotizing herself. "That was 30 years ago," Greene said Friday. "No more panic attacks."

Dr. Lipsitz was born in St. Louis, the youngest of three boys. His father was known for treating the city's poor for free.

After he died, his wife made sure the boys got good educations. After graduating from Soldan High School, Dr. Lipsitz graduated from Yale University and St. Louis University Medical School. He became an Army doctor, serving as chief psychiatrist in the Philippines. Tuberculosis was still a major problem after the war, and St. Louis had a sanitarium dedicated to treatment of the disease: Koch Hospital, on the banks of the Mississippi River, just south of Jefferson Barracks. Dr. Lipsitz specialized in chest diseases, including tuberculosis, and ran a ward at the hospital. "He was a remarkably kind and gentle man, who cured a lot of people and was very beloved by his patients," recalled Dr. Irwin Schultz of Clayton, who worked with Dr. Lipsitz.

Dr. Lipsitz began using hypnosis in his treatment. He believed that many perceived illnesses are psychological issues. He became certified in hypnosis in 1960, and one of his first patients was his 8-year-old daughter, Suzy. "He stopped me from sucking my thumb," recalled Suzy Cornbleet of University City. He also taught her self-hypnosis, which she used to avoid drugs during delivery of her two children, now 26 and 29. "He would anesthesize my hand, and my hand would rub over my abdomen and would transfer the anesthesia to my abdomen," she said.

Like his father, Dr. Lipsitz wouldn't take money from needy patients. They sometimes paid with food or baskets made from popsicle sticks, recalled a son, Dr. David Lipsitz of Olivette. "He never knew his father, but he ended up being just like him," he said.

His wife of 66 years, Edith, died in 2008. Survivors in addition to his son and daughter include another daughter, Judy Capes of Clayton; another son, Dr. Thomas Lipsitz of Chesterfield; 11 grandchildren; and four great-grandchildren. The funeral is at 9 a.m. Sunday at Berger Memorial Chapel, 4715 McPherson Avenue. Burial is private. The family suggests memorial contributions be made to the Alzheimer's Association, 9370 Olive Boulevard, St. Louis, 63132; or to a charity of choice.



Dr. Lewis R. Wolberg, a psychoanalyst and founder and former chairman of the Postgraduate Center for Mental Health, died of a heart attack Feb. 3 at his winter home in La Penita, Jalisco, Mexico, near Puerto Vallarta. He was 82 years old and also lived in Putnam Valley, N.Y. The Postgraduate Center is the oldest low-cost psychiatric clinic in New York City. It was founded in 1945 by Dr. Wolberg and his wife, Arlene R. Wolberg, a psychiatric social worker. The clinic began in the basement of a brownstone and outgrew two other homes, until it settled into its present location in an eight-story building at 124 East 28th Street.

Dr. Wolberg founded the center to aid World War II veterans. Now it provides outpatient and inpatient services, resident training and community health care. Dr. Wolberg was born in Odessa in the Ukraine. He graduated from the University of Rochester and the Tufts College Medical School. He trained at the New York Psychoanalytic Institute and was certified by the American Institute for Psychoanalysis in 1943.

An advocate of using hypnosis in psychoanalysis, Dr. Wolberg wrote extensively on the subject. He was the author or editor of 20 books, including the text ''The Technique of Psychotherapy.''

Dr. Wolberg was an attending psychiatrist at New York University and Bellevue Hospitals at his death. From 1967 to 1986, he was professor of psychiatry at the New York University School of Medicine. Dr. Wolberg was dean and medical director of the Postgraduate Center until 1970 and the chairman of the center from 1970 to 1986.

Surviving are his wife and two daughters, Barbara Jane Hamburger and Ellen May Baumwoll, both of Manhattan.


1. The Practice of Psychotherapy: Five Hundred and Six Questions and Answers by Lewis R. Wolberg

2. Hypnosis: Is it for You? by Lewis R Wolberg

3. Zooming in: Photographic Discoveries Under the Microscope by B.J. Wolberg and Lewis R. Wolberg

4. Psychotherapy and the Behavioral Sciences by Lewis R Wolberg

5. Art Forms from Photomicrography by Lewis R. Wolberg

6. Technique of Psychotherapy by Lewis R. Wolberg

7. Medical Hypnosis Vol 1 by Lewis R Wolberg

8. Medical Hypnosis Vol 2 by Lewis R Wolberg

9. Short Term Psychotherapy by Lewis R Wolberg

10. Hypnoanalysis by Lewis Woldberg:


Arlene Robbins Wolberg, a psychoanalyst and an educator and author, died of a heart attack yesterday at the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center in Manhattan. She was 82 years old and lived in Manhattan. Mrs. Wolberg and her late husband. Dr. Lewis R. Wolberg, were co-founders of the Postgraduate Center for Mental Health in Manhattan in 1945. She was considered an authority on the treatment of patients with borderline personality disorders and wrote two books on the subject, ''The Psychoanalytic Treatment of the Borderline Patient in the Individual and Group Setting'' published in 1960 by Karger, Basel, and ''The Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy of the Borderline Patient,'' published in 1982 by Thieme-Stratton.

Mrs. Wolberg received a master's degree in social science from Smith College School of Social Work in 1930 and a certificate in psychotherapy and psychoanalysis at the Postgraduate Center in 1952. She had been director of community services and dean of community service and education since 1959. She is survived by two daughters, Barbara Jane Hamburger and Ellen May Baumwoll, both of Manhattan, and four grandchildren. O


IN MEMORIAM: ROBERT LESLIE (AGE 89) (LOGOTHERAPY) : JUNE 2006Robert Cambell Leslie, the James and Clarice Foster Professor of Pastoral Psychology and Counseling at PSR, died June 14 in Napa, CA, at the age of 89. An ordained United Methodist minister, Leslie taught here from 1954 to 1982 and at the Graduate Theological Union from 1962 to 1982. He also served as PSR dean for two periods, first at the end of the 1970s and again in the early 1980s. Born in Concord, MA, in 1917, Leslie graduated from DePauw University in 1939. He served as a chaplain in the U.S. Army during World War II in the South Pacific (1943-1946) before earning a PhD in the psychology of religion at Boston University in 1948. For six years he was a mental hospital chaplain and part-time teacher at Boston University School of Theology before coming to PSR in 1954.

His first sabbatical leave from the seminary, in 1960-61, was spent in Vienna with Viktor E. Frankl, whose book From Death Camp to Existentialism Leslie helped revise into Man’s Search for Meaning: An Introduction to Logotherapy (1962). This led eventually to Leslie’s appointment as curator for the Frankl Library at the GTU. Leslie continued to be active in writing about logotherapy and attended all seven of the world congresses on the subject. His books include Jesus and Logotherapy (reprinted as Jesus as Counselor: Man’s Search for a Meaningful Faith), Health, Healing, and Holiness, and The Surprising Gospel (with Wilhelm Wuellner). A year after his retirement, in 1983, he was honored by the American Association of Pastoral Counselors with its Annual Distinguished Contributor Award. Robert Leslie is survived by his wife, Paula; by two children, William Allen Lesllie of Berkeley and Heather Leslie Hammer of Livermore; and by two grandchildren, Joseph Robert Hammer and Leslie Mary Hammer. Heather shares her father’s commitment to ministry, having graduated from PSR with an MDiv. He was present at her commencement exercise.

Robert C. Leslie Professor, Pacific School of Religion, Berkeley Students and faculty, clergy and lay people, American and international scholars, will remember him as a leader in the field of psychology of religion. Dr. Leslie passed away June 14, 2006, at age 88. As professor of pastoral psychology and counseling at the Pacific School of Religion, Berkeley 1954-1982, Leslie helped shape the field of pastoral care in the second half of the 20th Century. Born in Concord, MA, Leslie received his A.B. degree from DePauw University in 1939. He completed a bachelor of sacred theology degree in 1942 from Boston University School of Theology and a Ph.D. in psychology of religion in 1948 from Boston University, where he then joined the faculty. He was ordained in the Methodist Church and pursued an academic career training future ministers and counselors. In 1954, Robert Leslie accepted the position to be the first full-time professor of pastoral psychology and counseling at the Pacific School of Religion in Berkeley. Leslie brought to the Berkeley seminary two years experience as a local pastor; three and a half years as an army chaplain, including 29 months in the South Pacific; and six years as a psychiatric hospital chaplain. As a professor, Dr. Leslie emphasized the practical skills needed by pastors and counselors when working with people in crisis. He pioneered videotaping role-play simulations to train seminary students in pastoral care skills. Leslie's interests bridged the fields of psychology and religion. He wrote Jesus and Logotherapy.

His Sharing Groups in the Church: An Invitation to Involvement (1970) remains a core text on the psychological value of small groups in the parish. Other books by Leslie draw from the work of Viktor Frankl, a Viennese psychiatrist and concentration camp survivor, with whom Leslie studied in Vienna, Austria, 1960-1961. Jesus as Counselor (1982), first published as Jesus and Logotherapy (1965); and Man's Search for a Meaningful Faith (1967) extend Frankl's psychological theory to Christian practice. Man's Search for a Meaningful Faith has been published in Spanish, Korean and Japanese. As director of the Pastoral Counseling Center at Pacific School of Religion, Leslie supervised doctoral students in marriage and family counseling. His publications include Professional Growth for Clergymen: Through Supervised Training in Marriage Counseling and Family Problems (edited by Robert C. Leslie and Emily Hartshorne Mudd, 1970) and Person to Person: A Pastoral Counseling Manual (translated into Chinese and co-authored by Susan Wu, 1981). Leslie co-authored Sustaining Intimacy with Margaret G. Alter (1978) and The Surprising Gospel: Intriguing Psychological Insights from the New Testament with Wilhelm H. Wuellner (1984). An emerging focus on cross-cultural understanding led Leslie to research at theological seminaries in Taiwan, India, and Singapore. He has lectured in Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Australia, England, Austria, and Germany. Leslie held the James and Clarice Foster Professor of Pastoral Psychology and Counseling Chair at the Pacific School of Religion and served as interim Academic Dean. He was a key professor in the area of Psychology and Religion in the Graduate Theological Union, a consortium of 9 seminaries of different faiths in Berkeley.

In addition to publishing nine books, Leslie wrote hundreds of articles for professional journals. He was awarded the distinctions of Fellow and Diplomate of the Viktor Frankl Institute of Logotherapy, Fellow of the American Psychological Association, and Diplomate of the American Association of Pastoral Counselors. He served on the Commission of Religion and Health of the National Council of Churches and as Curator of the Viktor Frankl Library and Memorabilia at the Graduate Theological Union. Leslie was an active clergy member of the California-Nevada Conference of the United Methodist Church. At the Annual Conference Session in Sacramento, June 14, Bishop Beverly Shamana honored Leslie with words of appreciation. He published United Methodist study books, including Health, Healing, and Holiness (1971) and Ages and Stages: Close Connections (1981). Leslie served on the Board of the Fred Finch Youth Center, a residential treatment center in Oakland. Robert Leslie is survived by his wife of 65 years, Paula; by two children: William Allen Leslie of Berkeley and Heather Leslie Hammer of Livermore; by two grandchildren: Joseph Robert Hammer and Leslie Mary Hammer; and by his brother, James Stewart Leslie of Delaware, Ohio. A Memorial Service will be held Sat, June 24, 2PM, at the First United Methodist Church, 625 Randolph St., Napa, CA. In lieu of flowers, memorial gifts may be sent for student scholarships to the Pacific School of Religion, 1789 Scenic Ave., Berkeley, CA 94709, in memory of Robert Leslie.


THEODORE X. BARBER (1927–2005): JOHN F. CHAVES: STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT STONY BROOK: Theodore Xenophon Barber, one of the most prolific and influential researchers in the field of hypnosis, died unexpectedly on September 10, 2005, of a ruptured aortic aneurysm. He was 78 years old. At the time of his death he was an active scholar in his private research enterprise, the Interdisciplinary Science Research Institute.

Born in 1927 to Greek immigrant parents in Martins Ferry, Ohio, Barber graduated at age 15 from the local high school and then studied at St. John's College in Maryland. He earned his doctorate in psychology at American University (1956) in Washington, DC, and then moved to Boston to complete a postdoctoral research fellowship in the Department of Social Relations at Harvard with Clyde Kluckhohn and William A. Caudill.

Following a brief tenure as a research associate at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology, he joined the staff of the Medfield Foundation in 1961. The Foundation was located on the grounds of Medfield State Hospital and supported a number of researchers in psychiatry and psychology. Barber was director of research for the Foundation and for a time also served as chief psychologist for the hospital. His research was continuously supported through this period by grants from the National Institutes of Health. He remained at Medfield until 1978, when he became chief psychologist at the Cushing Hospital in Framingham, Massachusetts, where he remained until his retirement in 1986.

At Medfield, Barber established one of the most vital and productive centers for hypnosis research in the world. He held adjunct appointments at Harvard and Boston University and attracted a number of research assistants and associates, postdoctoral fellows, and visiting scholars to Medfield. With these colleagues he published more than 200 scholarly papers and 8 books. Hypnosis: A Scientific Approach (1969) became a classic and remains the best summary of his early experimental work for the scientific community. A later volume, coauthored with Nicholas P. Spanos and John F. Chaves, Hypnosis, Imagination, and Human Potentialities (1974), brought much of this material to a wider audience.

Barber began his career as an iconoclast, critical of the ways in which the concept of hypnosis had been used both as a label for diverse and baffling phenomena and as an explanation for those same phenomena. Those who embraced traditional views of hypnosis as an altered state of consciousness were displeased by Barber's habit of placing quotation marks around the term hypnosis to reflect his concerns. Some interpreted this as an expression of a cavalier and dismissive attitude about the entire field. That interpretation became increasingly untenable as Barber examined hypnotic behavior with unprecedented care and demonstrated that these behaviors were not what they appeared to be and that many widely held assumptions about the phenomena were either incorrect or incomplete.

Barber's research placed hypnosis within the mainstream of social psychology. His social-cognitive theory eschewed the notion of hypnosis as a special state of consciousness. Basic social psychological processes such as task motivation, expectation, and belief played a central explanatory role. Yet Barber acknowledged that dramatic outcomes, reflecting a wide range of human potentialities, were possible when these processes were properly engaged. Later in his career, Barber proposed a three-dimensional reformulation of hypnosis that attempted to find common ground with those advancing competing theoretical perspectives based on dissociation. He theorized that there are three distinct subtypes of good hypnotic subjects: the fantasy prone, the amnesia prone, and the highly motivated positively set subjects who had been the main focus of Barber's earlier research.

Although hypnosis was the main focus of Barber's research, his interests and research encompassed other topics, including the phenomenon of investigator bias, psychical phenomena, and even comparative psychology, as reflected in his book The Human Nature of Birds (1993). He maintained a long-standing interest in the mind-body problem and had prepared many thoughtful unpublished chapters on this topic. He recognized that many of his ideas would be viewed as controversial. Accordingly, colleagues were invited to critique these chapters and debate the issues with Ted. He was a formidable scholar who constantly immersed himself in original resources. It was a rare triumph when one of us could bring to these discussions relevant data of which he was unaware. The results of this final project, to be published posthumously, argue scientifically that consciousness, intelligence, and purposefulness can be found throughout the universe, from cells to planets.

Barber served as president of Division 30 (Psychological Hypnosis) of the American Psychological Association and of the Massachusetts Psychological Association and was a fellow of both organizations. He served on the editorial boards of many journals and received the Presidential Award for Lifetime Contributions to the Field of Hypnosis from the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, as well as the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Scientific Hypnosis from Division 30.

Ted Barber's work has had a profound influence on the field and on the next generation of researchers and practitioners. Whether they had the privilege of working directly with him or not, Ted was very accessible and extraordinarily generous with his time. He encouraged those newly entering the field and did much to nurture their careers. He will be remembered for this generosity as well as for the intense curiosity, energy, and passion that characterized all of his endeavors.

Ted Barber is survived by his children, X. Theodore Barber and Rania Richardson of New York and Elaine Barber of Silver Spring, MD. He is also survived by two sisters, Angela Fardy and Mary Brillis, and a brother, John Barber. Copyright 2006 American Psychological Association

A NEW HYPNOSIS PARADIGM: THEODORE XENOPHON BARTER, PH. D.ABSTRACT: A meta-analysis was performed on 18 studies in which a cognitive-behavioral therapy was compared with the same therapy supplemented by hypnosis. The results indicated that the addition of hypnosis substantially enhanced treatment outcome, so that the average client receiving cognitive-behavioral hypnotherapy showed greater improvement than at least 70% of clients receiving nonhypnotic treatment. Effects seemed particularly pronounced for treatments of obesity, especially at long-term follow-up, indicating that unlike those in nonhypnotic treatment, clients to whom hypnotic inductions had been administered continued to lose weight after treatment ended. These results were particularly striking because of the few procedural differences between the hypnotic and nonhypnotic treatments. Kirsch, I., Montgomery, G., & Sapirstein, G. (1995). Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 63, 214-220.

[Reprinted from the Fall, 1997 issue of Psychological Hypnosis (6), 3, pp. 8-12.] About the Author: Theodore Xenophon Barber is one of the most influential and creative researchers and theoreticians in the history of hypnosis. In his comprehensive, A History Of Hypnotism, Gauld (1992) does not hesitate to say that "Barber has had a stronger influence on both conceptual and methodological aspects of contemporary hypnotism than any other worker" His contributions include a critique of an unquestioned and facile notion of hypnosis as a "trance," state, methodological and conceptual proposals to further the study of hypnosis, research on "fantasy prone" individuals, and a comparison of hypnosis and other self-control technologies, among others.

Dr. Barber has published four books, more than 180 papers on hypnosis, was President of Division 30 between 1972-73, and was bestowed the Division's 1994 Award for Distinguished Contributions to Scientific Hypnosis. More recently he has directed his iconoclastic and keen mind to the study of animal awareness and mentation, producing the authoritative book The Human Nature of birds. We are fortunate that he has revisited hypnosis in the current paper which, I believe, will turn out to be a "modern classic." Besides his own contributions, he has directly or indirectly spawned the careers of other important figures including the late Nick Spanos, John Chaves and Irving Kirsch.

After seeking the essence of hypnosis for nearly 40 years, I finally synthesized my conclusions in a book chapter (Barber, in press). In this invited statement I'll summarize the basic points of this new hypnosis synthesis. I understood the essence of hypnosis when I realized there are really three dimensions or kinds of hypnosis, each associated with one of the three types of very good hypnotic subjects. One dimension or type of hypnosis is associated with very good hypnotic subjects who have a secret life-long history of fantasizing "as real as real." A second type of hypnosis is associated with another group of very good subjects who have a surprising tendency to forget events in their life and also have amnesia for hypnosis. A third type of hypnosis is associated with very good subjects who are neither fantasy-prone nor amnesia-prone but, instead, have positive attitudes, motivations, and expectancies toward the hypnotic situation and are thus "positively set" to think with and flow with the suggestions. The three kinds of hypnosis were distinguished gradually by a series of research projects (extending from the late 1950's to the early 1990's) which I summarized in the recent publication (Barber, in press). Here I'll list a few research highlights. Two large-scale investigations with several thousand hypnotic subjects by Deirdre Barrett (1990, 1996) and by Steven Jay Lynn and Judith Rhue (1986, 1988) confirmed Sheryl Wilson's and T. X. Barber's (1981, 1983) discovery that a small group of people (possibly no more than 2-4% of the adult population) have an astonishing history of realistic fantasizing and are very good hypnotic subjects because they experience externally-guided hypnosis in essentially the same way as their internally-guided "real as real" daily fantasies. Since early childhood these very good hypnotic subjects have spent an incredibly large proportion of their time in fantasy-based activities such as pretend-play, make-believe, vivid daydreaming, "real as real" imaginative recreation of sexual psychophysiological experiences, and interactions with such entities as imaginary companions, guardian angels, and spirits. Now, as adults, they have a closely guarded secret: they still spend much of their time fantasizing and they "see, hear, feel, smell, and experience" what they fantasize.

The second type of very good hypnotic subject was differentiated by Deirdre Barrett (1990, 1996). She discovered that her very good hypnotic subjects included a large proportion of fantasy-prone individuals and an almost equally large proportion of individuals who were not at all fantasy-prone but instead were amnesia-prone, that is, were characterized by amnesic periods in their daily lives, by amnesia for their childhood, and by amnesia following hypnosis.

During hypnosis, these amnesia-prone subjects exhibited an extreme loss of muscle tone. When awakened from hypnosis, they seemed confused, struggled to talk, were slow to answer questions, and seemed to have forgotten much or all that occurred. These very good hypnotic subjects also showed much forgetfulness in their lives. Most were amnesic for their life prior to age 5, and 40% could not remember life events prior to ages 6 to 8. (In startling contrast, all of Barrett's fantasy-prone subjects had vivid memories prior to age 3 and most reported memories prior to age 2.) Many and possibly all of Barrett's amnesia-prone subjects (and none of her fantasy-prone) had been beaten, battered, or injured during childhood and had suffered associated psychological abuse and, in many cases, sexual abuse.

Although fantasy-prone and amnesia-prone individuals have played dramatic roles in the history of hypnosis, most individuals rated as very good subjects in modern experiments (typically passing 85% or more of the suggestions on the Barber, Stanford, Harvard, Carleton, and/or Creative Imagination Scales), were neither fantasy-prone nor amnesia-prone. Instead, they were very good hypnotic subjects because they had (a) positive attitudes toward the idea of hypnosis, toward the specific test situation, and toward the particular hypnotist, (b) positive motivations to perform well on the suggested tasks and to experience those things suggested, (c) positive expectancies that they can be hypnotized and can experience the suggested effects, and (d) a positive set to visualize, think with, and not contradict the hypnotist's suggestions. A small number of important investigations in clinical hypnosis, self-hypnosis, and stage hypnosis (summarized by Barber, in press) and numerous investigations in experimental hypnosis (summarized in Baker, 1990; Barber, 1969, 1970; Barber, Spanos, & Chaves, 1974; Sarbin & Coe, 1972; Sheehan & McConkey, 1982; Spanos & Chaves, 1989; Wagstaff, 1981) buttressed this picture of the very good hypnotic subject who is positively set to respond maximally in a particular hypnotic situation. The research mentioned above, which took nearly 40 years to distinguish the three distinct types of very good hypnotic subjects, was corroborated by a recent statistical investigation in which cluster analyses were performed on the hypnotic experiences reported by several hundred subjects (Pekala, 1991; Pekala, Kumar, & Marcano, 1995). Pekala's cluster analyses yielded the same three types of very good hypnotic subjects: type 1 resemble fantasy-prone persons whose hypnotic experiences are characterized by vivid imagery and fantasy, and mild-to-moderate alterations in consciousness but not by amnesia; type 2 resemble amnesia-prone persons who, during hypnosis, are characterized by automaticity, apparent loss of self awareness, seemingly profound alterations in state of consciousness, and posthypnotic amnesia but not by vivid imagery; type 3, resemble positively-set (or "compliant") "highly hypnotizable subjects who respond behaviorally to all or almost all of the Harvard [Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility] items, and yet do not generate the usual phenomenological response to the Harvard" [that is, do not experience hypnosis in the same way as the fantasy-prone or amnesia-prone].

This new hypnosis paradigm meets the criteria for a useful scientific paradigm (Kuhn, 1962) in that it unifies conflicting ["trance" versus "non- trance"] views, explains the [three-dimensional] nature of hypnosis, explains "baffling" hypnotic phenomena, provides new methods of research to answer entirely new questions, and radically alters the assumptions, conceptualizations, procedures, and aims of hypnosis research.

The new paradigm sees the conflicting schools of hypnosis, both historic and modern (Gauld, 1992), as focusing on different kinds of very good hypnotic subjects and, consequently, as talking about different kinds of hypnosis. One school ("trance," "state," "neodissociation") focused on the hypnosis of the amnesia-prone subject, while the other school ("non-trance," "non-state," "suggestion," "cognitive-behavioral-social-psychological") focused on the positively-set subject, and both schools missed the important fantasy-prone subject. When the three types of hypnosis are clearly distinguished, the conflicting schools disappear into a higher unity, a new paradigm, that harmoniously encompasses the three kinds of hypnosis.

Instead of one undifferentiated, unidimensional hypnosis, we have to now think in terms of three hypnoses: the hypnosis of the fantasy-prone person which involves essentially the same state of consciousness as absorption in realistic fantasy; the hypnosis of the amnesia-prone person which has sleep-like characteristics with apparent automaticity followed by amnesia; and the hypnosis of the positively-set person which involves a not particularly uncommon state of consciousness characterized by "mental relaxation," "letting go," and "going with the flow." Similarly, the new paradigm reconceptualizes autohypnosis in three dimensions: the self-hypnosis of fantasy-prone persons absorbed in their daily fantasies; the self-hypnosis of the amnesia-prone during the "blank" periods in their life; and the self-hypnosis of the positively-set who close their eyes, let go of other concerns, and think-with and imagine self-administered suggestions.

The new paradigm asks new questions and opens new lines of research. What life-experiences produce the three types of very good hypnotic subjects? How are the special "talents" of the different types related to the "classical" hypnotic phenomena and to related phenomena such as the different types of "trance" associated with fantasy-prone and amnesia-prone shamans (Cardena, 1996)? What are the different subtypes of fantasy-prone, amnesia-prone, and positively-set subjects, and how do the different subtypes explain what has not been understood about hypnosis? The preliminary data now available suggest a number of hypotheses related to these questions that can be tested empirically.

* Hypothesis 1. There are at least three subtypes of fantasy-prone persons: one subtype developed fantasy talents in association with childhood imaginative activities (such as pretend-play, make-believe, imaginary playmates, and exposure to fantasy-stimulating tales or stories); a second subtype developed fantasy talents in learning to escape mentally from an undesirable early life environment; and a third subtype became proficient in fantasizing "real as real" by engaging in increasingly realistic sexual fantasies based on pleasurable sexual contacts experienced intermittently.

* Hypothesis 2. There are at least two subtypes of amnesia-prone subjects: one subtype learned during childhood to escape mentally from abuse by developing an ability to "block out (to separate, isolate, repress, or dissociate) memories and experiences in a separate ego state or alternate personality; and a second subtype learned during childhood to comply with an adult's desires and have amnesia for the events in response to repeatedly experiencing furtive sexual relations with an adult while [the child was] ostensibly sleeping.

* Hypothesis 3. There are at least two subtypes of positively-set individuals who are very good hypnotic subjects. One subtype is a highly socialized, empathic, cooperative, friendly person who readily adopts positive attitudes and expectancies in social situations, and is ready to yield to the wishes (or suggestions) of another person. However, most positively-set individuals are very good hypnotic subjects not because they are so highly socialized and so ready to yield to another's wishes but because a proficient hypnotist has removed their misconceptions and fears about hypnosis and maximized their expectations, desires, and readiness to relax mentally, shift into a receptive mode, and cognitively "flow with" (think with, imagine, visualize) those things suggested.

The new hypnosis paradigm is multidimensional. It subsumes the three major dimensions outlined above--the dimensions of fantasy-prone, amnesia-prone, and positively-set subjects--plus three additional dimensions: (a) The dimension of the social psychology of the psychological experiment (Orne, 1962) which includes implicit demand characteristics such as implicit social rules, obligations, and mutual roles and expectations that powerfully affect the behavior of virtually all subjects in all formal experimental situations. (b) The dimension of the hypnotist which includes such variables as the hypnotist's skill, charisma, wisdom and effectiveness in communicating with and profoundly influencing the subject. (c) The dimension of instructions and suggestions including suggestions that especially fit the fantasy-prone subject (suggestions for age-regression, age-progression, past-life regression and the suggestions included in the Creative Imagination Scale), suggestions that especially fit the amnesia-prone subject (suggestions for "blocking out" memories, pain, audition, vision, and other sensations), and suggestions that especially fit the positively-set subject (suggestions for heightened strength and endurance, enhanced learning abilities, and heightened awareness, proficiency, enjoyment, etc.) (Barber, 1985, 1990, 1993).